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Craven District Council

Accessible Craven Local Plan

A copy of the Craven Local Plan presented on a single webpage for greater accessibility

CRAVEN LOCAL PLAN

2012 to 2032

Adopted 12th November 2019

Foreword 

The Craven Local Plan is an essential document to address some of the big issues facing the District over the coming years.

Craven is a distinctive and attractive place to live, work and visit, offering a fulfilling and vibrant community life with a range of successful companies that are essential for our communities’ future prosperity. The Local Plan will build on these factors to provide greater equality amongst our communities in terms of housing choice, better paid local job opportunities, more opportunities for pursuing a healthy and active lifestyle and access to services upon which residents, of all ages, depend. In developing the Local Plan we have aimed to embrace all of these factors.

The Plan sets the location, design and sustainable construction of these new homes, business premises and other commercial enterprises and so helps reduce carbon emissions, fuel poverty and waste, and respects the distinctive character and heritage of their surroundings, reinforcing a ‘sense of place’. We aim for new homes to have good access by walking, cycling, public transport and car to local facilities, employment areas, town centres and the countryside.  

I would like to thank everyone who has contributed to the preparation of the Craven Local Plan, including adjoining Local Authorities, the National Park, Government Agencies, the development industry and in particular our communities for their active involvement. This Local Plan is the result of the Council working with communities and partners constructively and cooperatively and we believe that this journey has led to the creation of a Local Plan that successfully promotes necessary growth while protecting our important landscapes.

A photograph of Richard Foster

Richard Foster

Leader, Craven District Council

 

Contents:

page

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

8

SECTION 2: CONTEXT

13

SECTION 3: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

28

VISION FOR CRAVEN IN 2032

28

PLAN OBJECTIVES

31

POLICY SD1: THE PRESUMPTION IN FAVOUR OF SUSTAINABLE   DEVELOPMENT

33

POLICY SD2: MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

34

SECTION 4: STRATEGIC POLICIES AND SPATIAL STRATEGY

37

POLICY SP1: MEETING HOUSING NEED

37

POLICY SP2: ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND BUSINESS GROWTH

41

POLICY SP3: HOUSING MIX AND DENSITY

45

POLICY SP4: SPATIAL STRATEGY AND HOUSING GROWTH

48

POLICY SP5: STRATEGY FOR SKIPTON – TIER 1

62

POLICY SP6: STRATEGY FOR SETTLE – TIER 2

85

POLICY SP7: STRATEGY FOR BENTHAM – TIER 2

97

POLICY SP8: STRATEGY FOR GLUSBURN/CROSS HILLS – TIER 3

103

POLICY SP9: STRATEGY FOR INGLETON – TIER 3

106

POLICY SP10: STRATEGY FOR GARGRAVE – TIER 3

111

POLICY SP11:STRATEGY FOR TIER 4A AND 4B VILLAGES WITH BASIC SERVICES AND BISECTED VILLAGES WITH BASIC SERVICES

114

POLICY SP12: INFRASTRUCTURE, STRATEGY AND DEVELOPMENT DELIVERY

118

SECTION 5: ENVIRONMENT

121

POLICY ENV1: COUNTRYSIDE AND LANDSCAPE

121

POLICY ENV2: HERITAGE

126

POLICY ENV3: GOOD DESIGN

131

POLICY ENV4: BIODIVERSITY

137

POLICY ENV5: GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

144

POLICY ENV6: FLOOD RISK

150

POLICY ENV7: LAND AND AIR QUALITY

153

POLICY ENV8: WATER RESOURCES, WATER QUALITY AND GROUNDWATER

155

POLICY ENV9: RENEWABLE AND LOW CARBON ENERGY

157

POLICY ENV10: LOCAL GREEN SPACE

164

POLICY ENV11: THE LEEDS & LIVERPOOL CANAL

168

POLICY ENV12: FOOTPATHS, BRIDLEWAYS, BYWAYS AND CYCLE ROUTES

171

POLICY ENV13: GREEN WEDGES

174

SECTION 6: HOUSING

177

POLICY H1: SPECIALIST HOUSING FOR OLDER PEOPLE

177

POLICY H2: AFFORDABLE HOUSING

179

POLICY H3: GYPSIES,TRAVELLERS,SHOWMEN AND ROMA

192

SECTION 7: ECONOMY

196

POLICY EC1: EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

196

POLICY EC2: SAFEGUARDING EXISTING EMPLOYMENT AREAS

196

POLICY EC3: RURAL ECONOMY

200

POLICY EC4: TOURISM

203

POLICY EC4A: TOURISM-LED DEVELOPMENT AT BOLTON ABBEY

203

POLICY EC4B: TOURISM DEVELOPMENT COMMITMENT AT HELLIFIELD

203

POLICY EC5: TOWN, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES

217

POLICY EC5A: RESIDENTIAL USE IN TOWN, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES

217

SECTION 8: INFRASTRUCTURE, SERVICES AND FACILITIES

228

POLICY INF1: PLANNING OBLIGATIONS

228

POLICY INF2: COMMUNITY FACILITES AND SOCIAL SPACES

232

POLICY INF3: SPORT, OPEN SPACE AND RECREATION FACILITIES

235

POLICY INF4: PARKING PROVISION

244

POLICY INF5: COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE

247

POLICY INF6: EDUCATION PROVISION

251

POLICY INF7:SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND HIGHWAYS

254

SECTION 9: MONITORING

260

APPENDIX A TO POLICY INF3: SPORT, OPEN SPACE AND BUILT SPORTS FACILITIES

1-24

APPENDIX B TO POLICY INF6: EDUCATION PROVISION

1-12

APPENDIX C TO POLICY ENV6: FLOOD RISK

1-2

APPENDIX D: POLICIES SCHEDULE

[The Policies Map follows]

1-4

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1        This Local Plan sets out a spatial strategy and policies for change, development and conservation in Craven District outside the Yorkshire Dales National Park (YDNP) for the period 2012 to 2032. It is used to decide planning applications and sets out how land is to be used for things like housing, business, recreation and conservation; how the right development is to be achieved in the right location at the right time; and how sustainable development can be achieved overall. A number of policies from the Craven Local Plan (1999) were saved in 2007.  The majority of these saved policies have been replaced in this Local Plan.  Appendix D details which saved policies have been replaced by those within this Local Plan.

1.2       The Craven Local Plan, together with Neighbourhood Plans, and the Joint Minerals and Waste Local Plan (which sets out a strategy for minerals and waste planning in North Yorkshire outside YDNP and is prepared by North Yorkshire County Council (NYCC), the City of York Council (CYC) and the North York Moors National Park Authority (NYMNPA)) will form the development plan for Craven outside the YDNP.[1]

1.3       The Craven Local Plan is required by law[2] and has been tailor–made to suit Craven and its communities. It is committed to our international obligations and mindful of our aspirations as a nation including the national planning priorities set out in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) and the more detailed guidance provided in the National Planning Practice Guidance (NPPG). The NPPF provides a broad set of national planning priorities, which include housing growth, economic growth, social progress and environmental enhancement.   The Craven Local Plan pursues these national priorities in a way that makes sense for the local area, because it responds to local circumstances and evidence and has been developed in consultation with local people and other stakeholders with an interest in Craven.   As a result, the Craven Local Plan is a plan for sustainable growth.

Vision

1.4       The plan begins with a vision of what we would like Craven to be in 2032. This vision gives the plan a focus and a goal to aim for.

Objectives

1.5       The plan objectives are broad achievements we need to make in order to make the vision a reality. There are ten objectives overall (PO1 – PO10).

Strategy

1.6       The strategy is the method for achieving our objectives — or the tactics for securing each objective, on the way to realising our vision. These tactics take the form of strategic, site allocation and development management policies.

Proposals

1.7       Where a policy earmarks an area of land for a specific purpose - for example: building new homes or businesses, recreation or conservation -it’s shown on the local plan map, also known as the policies map.

Plan Period

1.8       The Craven Local Plan covers the period of time from 2012 up to 2032. During this period, progress on achieving the objectives and towards our vision will be checked and announced each year in an annual report. If this monitoring reveals a hitch in the plan’s progress, policies can be adjusted to bring it back on track.

Plan Area

1.9       This is the geographical area - all of the towns, villages and countryside -covered by the plan. The plan area doesn’t include any part of Craven within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, which has its own local plan prepared by the National Park Authority. So, when you read “Craven” or “Craven plan area” in this document, it means “Craven outside the National Park”. Where information or statistics referred to in the Local Plan relate to the whole of the District, i.e. the plan area and the national park, you will read – “Craven District”.

Other Planning Documents

1.10    The Craven Local Plan sets out a spatial strategy, that together with its strategic, site allocation and development management policies provide a coherent and comprehensive decision making framework for future planning applications.   However, further detail and guidance on local plan policies can be a useful addition to the plan to help people when they are formulating their development proposals. Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) have this role and may follow on from the local plan. Any SPD that’s in the pipeline will appear in the Local Development Scheme, which is a rolling programme for the preparation and review of local plan documents. The progress of SPDs will be monitored in the annual report. Similarly, if the Council decides it wishes to introduce a Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) Charging Schedule to accompany the Local Plan, its timetable for preparation will be included in the Local Development Scheme.

Duty to Cooperate

1.11    The Craven Local Plan has been prepared in co-operation with neighbouring councils and agencies that work across council boundaries, to ensure that no opportunities are missed to work together on issues that are “bigger than local”, cross administrative boundaries and require a policy response. More detail on the relevant cross boundary strategic priorities that have been identified for Craven’s Local Plan and how cooperation and collaborative working with neighbouring authorities and other bodies has influenced the preparation of the Local Plan can be found in the Council’s Duty to Cooperate Statement.

Engagement, Collaboration and Evidence

1.12    This plan has been created in collaboration with local communities and other stakeholders - people and organisations with an interest in the future planning of the area. Early engagement with communities and stakeholders on shaping the local plan strategy and policies took place in 2012 and 2013, and the Council consulted on three draft versions of the Local Plan in 2014, 2016 and 2017 alongside its updated evidence base before publishing the Draft Publication Local Plan in January 2018 and submitting the plan to the Secretary of State for examination on 27th March 2018.

1.13    Engagement with stakeholders is carried out according to the Statement of Community Involvement (SCI), which is a kind of customer charter for the creation of local planning documents.

Sustainability Appraisal

1.14    The plan has been developed and refined using Sustainability Appraisal (SA), and Habitats Regulation Assessment (HRA). The SA tests ideas and options against a set of sustainability objectives to see how effectively they might achieve sustainable development. The HRA highlights Likely Significant Effects (LSE) on European designated sites for biodiversity i.e. RAMSAR sites, Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas and sets a framework for avoidance and/or mitigation. The SA Scoping Report has identified matters for the local plan to tackle and key issues are described in Section 2: Context.

Neighbourhood Plans

1.15    Parish councils within the Craven Local Plan area can produce neighbourhood plans which, when adopted, also form part of the development plan, together with the Craven Local Plan and the Joint Minerals and Waste Local Plan. Neighbourhood plans must be in general conformity with and reflect the strategic policies in the Craven Local Plan. Neighbourhood plans should not promote less development than set out in the Local Plan, but can promote more development. The Craven Local Plan has been prepared with neighbourhood plans in mind, as they’re likely to be an important part of Craven’s planning future.

1.16    Craven’s parishes will be encouraged to adopt neighbourhood planning and will be guided and supported in their neighbourhood planning efforts. Neighbourhood plans and orders will help to achieve sustainable growth in Craven by bringing forward communities’ own initiatives and proposals, in line with the strategy established by this local plan, for such things as:

  • Growth in housing and business
  • Rural exception sites
  • Conservation area appraisals
  • Local lists
  • Design guides
  • Local green space
  • Allotments
  • Green travel
  • Renewable and low-carbon energy
  • Community projects for sport, recreation, tourism and biodiversity.

SECTION 2: CONTEXT

2.1       This section provides some context for Craven, its people and places and identifies the key issues and challenges facing the area. More detailed facts and figures relating to Craven are contained in supporting Sustainability Appraisal documents.

Location and Area

A map showing Craven District and neighbouring council areas

2.2       The Craven plan area is situated at the western end of the county of North Yorkshire, England’s largest County and is 8,654 square kilometres in area. The total area of Craven District is 1,179 square kilometres. The area of Craven to which this local plan relates is 370 square kilometres. The remainder of the Craven District (808 square kilometres) is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority is a separate planning authority that produces a park-wide local plan, which encompasses parts of Craven, Richmondshire, South Lakeland and Eden Districts and a small part of the Lancaster City Council area. The boundary of the National Park in the Craven District generally follows the A65 to the north of Skipton and the A59 to the east of Skipton. At several locations the boundary of the National Park bisects settlements e.g. Embsay, Clapham, creating a ‘split’ in planning control between the National Park Authority and Craven District Council.   The Craven plan area is flanked by the County of Lancashire and the Lancashire districts of City of Lancaster, Ribble Valley and Pendle immediately to its west and south, Bradford Metropolitan District to the south-east and the Yorkshire Dales National Park to the north and east.

Sub- Regional/ Economic Context and Transport Links

2.3       Craven District Council is a partner in the Leeds City Region Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) and the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding LEP. Craven‘s presence in these two LEPs reflects significant economic links with the Leeds-Bradford conurbation as well as extensive predominantly rural areas to the east and north of the district in the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding LEP. Craven also has economic links with East Lancashire, in particular with nearby towns in Pendle and the City of Lancaster.[3]

2.4       Craven is predominantly a ‘small business’ economy, it has a higher proportion of ‘micro’ firms employing fewer than 10 workers (89.7%) than both Yorkshire and the Humber (86.8%) and Great Britain more generally (88.3%). As a result, there are relatively few firms employing between 10 and 49 workers (8.6% versus 10.9% in Yorkshire and the Humber and 9.6% in Great Britain), between 50 and 249 workers (1.4% versus 1.9% in Yorkshire and the Humber and 1.7% in Great Britain) and large firms employing over 250 workers (0.3% versus 0.4% in Yorkshire and the Humber and Great Britain overall)[4].

2.5       Nevertheless it is important to note that Craven is home to several large businesses of a national, and even international scale, including several in the Financial and Healthcare sectors (which have a strong presence in Craven as well as the wider Leeds City Region). A selection of these large companies located within Craven includes:

  • Angus Fire (Bentham): a manufacturer of fire protection products that has been in operation for over two hundred years, with customers in over a hundred countries and specialisms across a wide range of industrial sectors;
  • Dales Pharmaceuticals (Skipton): UK operation for the international pharmaceuticals company. Dales Pharmaceuticals hold licences for manufacture, assembly and importation of medicinal products for human and veterinary use, including investigational medicinal products and specialist services, such as Home Office Controlled Drug licences;
  • Computershare (formerly Homeloan Management Limited) (Skipton): a global financial administration company employing over 16,000 people across 90 offices around the world.
  • Principle Healthcare International (Skipton): the UK’s leading producers of vitamins, minerals and food supplements. The company heads up a group which serves some of the major retailers in the UK, Europe and internationally;
  • Skipton Building Society (Skipton): the UK’s fourth largest building society, with £13.9 billion of assets and a national presence represented by a network of around 100 branches across the country; and
  • Systagenix (Gargrave): world leader in the development and manufacture of advanced wound care products. The company distributes products and services to more than 100 countries, and employs 800 people worldwide including an experienced team of R+D Scientists at the Centre of Excellence for Wound Healing in Gargrave[5]

2.6       Craven has a lower level of business start-up relative to the national average, with just over 78 new business registrations per 10,000 working age population in Craven compared with 86 across Britain as a whole. However, Craven performs better in this measure relative to the regional rate, in which just 69 businesses are registered per 10,000 working age population[6].

2.7       In contrast, self-employment in Craven is well above the regional and national average, with 27.4% of the working-age population falling within this category compared with just 8.7% regionally and 10.0% nationally in 2014[7] (a fact partially explained by the rural nature of the District and the types of jobs that tend to flourish in such areas, such as leisure/recreation activities linked to tourism, hospitality and independent retail operations). Consultation with local businesses has shown that many of those who are self-employed and work from home (such as highly-educated private sector consultants) are drawn to the area in order to live and work in an attractive environment.[8]

2.8       Craven’s employment space is dominated by industrial (factory and warehousing) uses which account for over 60% of the total stock. Craven’s commercial office stock is also relatively significant at around 70,000 sq m and has been growing in scale in recent years whilst the reverse is true for manufacturing[9].

2.9       Between 1999/00 and 2004/05, Craven experienced a relatively large and steady rate of employment land development (with an average of 2.42 ha developed annually). Following this however, development reduced significantly to just 0.45 ha over the period 2005/06 – 2013/14. It is thought that this was due to a combination of a perceived lack of available employment sites combined with a tightening of finances and a more challenging business environment following the financial crisis[10].

2.10    A recent survey of local businesses in Craven identified a number of barriers to their further expansion. By far the most common barrier to further expansion was identified as a lack of suitable land and premises (67% of respondents highlighted this concern), in addition to the availability of a local workforce (33%) and a lack of affordable premises (26%)[11].

2.11    There is a diverse mix of business sectors within Craven, with concentrations scattered around the authority area[12]. However, the principal employment area within Craven is the area in and around the south of the plan area (encompassing Skipton but also Cross Hills and Sutton-in-Craven, in addition to Gargrave). Within Skipton itself, a large number of Public Services and Professional Services firms are evident. Clusters of businesses are also evident in the smaller, yet significant, settlements of Settle, Bentham and Ingleton.

2.12    There is a close correlation between the number and frequency of businesses and the strategic road network, with large hubs of firms visible to the east and west of Skipton via the A59 (providing a link to the M6 to the west and to the A1(M) and the port of Hull to the east); to the south of Skipton via the A629 (providing a link to the M606/M62 to the south-east) , and to the north west and south east of Skipton along the A65 (a trans-Pennine route linking the plan area with the M6 for Cumbria and the Lake District to the north-west and West Yorkshire (Leeds) and the M1 to the south east).

2.13    Whilst the A56 and the A6068 in the south of the plan area provide important links from Skipton and Glusburn/Cross Hills respectively to the M65 at Colne to the west which connects to the M6 south of Preston and provides access to the M66 to Manchester, the quality of the road connections between Craven and Colne in Pendle are currently poor. However, Lancashire County Council in its East Lancashire Highways and Transport Masterplan (2014) has identified the A56 Colne-Foulridge bypass as a potential scheme which could be delivered within the lifetime of the Craven Local Plan, providing funding can be secured. The scheme is also supported by the Lancashire Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) and in the adopted Pendle Core Strategy (2015) in view of the potential for the scheme to enhance economic links and benefits between Lancashire and Yorkshire.

2.14    The Craven Plan area is linked to the rail network via the Leeds-Skipton-Carlisle route (incorporating the famous Settle-Carlisle railway) and the Leeds-Skipton-Lancaster-Morecambe route. Skipton is also the terminus for the electrified Airedale line from West Yorkshire (Leeds and Bradford). Rail services on the Airedale line connecting Skipton with Leeds and Bradford (and with other West Yorkshire towns in between) are excellent and have experienced high levels of growth in usage in recent years. Indeed Skipton Station is the second busiest railway station in North Yorkshire with over 1,106,036 entries and exits recorded in 2014/15[13]. The HS2 Growth Strategy of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority (WYCA) seeks to realise in full the potential benefits of HS2 to accelerate the transformation and growth of the sub- regional economy. WYCA positions HS2 at the centre of a coherent strategy for improving the wider rail and transport network serving Leeds City Region (including the Airedale line). It will be integrated with enhanced inter-urban links across the north (Northern Rail), particularly a new fast east-west link between York, Leeds, Bradford and Manchester, and also between Leeds and Sheffield. A project inception report completed in February 2017 (managed by the WYCA and sponsored by NYCC and CDC) investigated the viability and business case for a new Station at Cross Hills on the Airedale line. The report concluded that the scheme should be taken forward for further work and more detailed consideration.

2.15    North and west of Skipton, the rail links that connect Craven with Carlisle,   Lancaster and Clitheroe, are on less populous routes than the Airedale line and patronage from tourism contributes to the level of services. Improvements to the train services between Skipton and Lancaster have recently been agreed and are included in the Council’s Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) together with the need to make improvements to existing railway stations along this route. The rail connections to the west are particularly restricted with only Sunday services operating on the community rail line between Manchester –Clitheroe – Hellifield.

2.16    There is no direct rail link between Skipton and towns in East Lancashire, although the track bed of the route of the former Skipton to Colne railway line presents an opportunity to enhance the accessibility of employment, business and housing between Craven and East Lancashire and improve connections to Manchester and Manchester Airport. The adopted Pendle Core strategy (2015) supports the reinstatement of the Colne to Skipton railway line as a key strategic transport scheme in Pendle and protects the route of the former Colne-Skipton railway for future transport use.   North Yorkshire County Council in their recently published document: A Strategic Transport Prospectus for North Yorkshire sets out how it would like to work with the Government, Transport for the North and the Northern City Regions to ensure that improved transport connections allow England’s largest County to both contribute to and share in the economic benefits of the Northern Powerhouse and to this end three strategic transport have been identified :--

-improving east-west connectivity (including trans-Pennine links),

- improving access to High Speed and conventional rail, and

- improving long distance connectivity to the north and south.

These strategic transport priorities are also reflected in the new North Yorkshire Local Transport Plan (LTP4) 2016 to 2045.   A number of key east-west routes are within Craven such as the A59, A56 and the A6068. In March 2017, North Yorkshire County Council with Lancashire Local Enterprise Partnerships and the West Yorkshire Combined Authority published an East-West Connectivity Study focussed on a ‘Central’ Trans Pennine Corridor, including key road routes such as the M65/A59/A56/A65 and rail routes such as the Calder Valley and the Skipton –Colne Lines. The study aims to develop a strategic economic narrative to the case for potential intervention in road/rail based connectivity. CDC is a key stakeholder in this study.

2.17    The southern part of the Craven plan area and the Aire Valley in particular has very good and frequent bus services/routes, connecting Skipton and settlements in south Craven to towns and cities in West Yorkshire and East Lancashire. Bus services connecting Skipton to Settle and beyond along the A65 are good, although in the more remote rural areas of Craven bus services face an uncertain future related to social change (e.g. the growth in car ownership and demographic change).

2.18    There are no airports within the plan area, but the nearest airports are Leeds-Bradford Airport to the south east and Manchester Airport to the south west.

Settlements

2.19    The Craven Plan area contains the four largest settlements within Craven District.   The market town of Skipton is the largest town in the District and plan area (by a considerable margin) and is located in the south of the plan area in the strategic ‘Aire Gap’ through the Pennines linking Yorkshire with Lancashire. It contains the administrative functions of the District Council and is the base for a range of North Yorkshire County Council services. Skipton has the largest town centre, offers the widest range of employment opportunities, goods and services in the District and plan area and is well connected with the A road network and rail network. The two smaller market towns of Bentham and Settle are located in the north and mid areas of the Craven plan area respectively and both have a good range of services, provide employment opportunities and are well connected to the A road network and rail network, although Bentham is located further away from the A65 than Settle. Glusburn/Cross Hills, the largest village in the District, is located in the south of the plan area close to the boundary with Bradford Metropolitan District, and offers employment opportunities and a good range of services for a village of its size.

2.20    The remainder of the plan area is characterised by villages that function as local service centres or villages that have basic services and these are generally located either on or close to main transport routes (road and/or rail).   For example Ingleton, Clapham, Hellifield, Long Preston and Gargrave are on/close to the A65 and with the exception of Ingleton, have railway stations on either the Leeds – Skipton- Lancaster – Morecambe route and/or the Leeds – Skipton- Carlisle route. The village of Bolton Abbey in the south of the plan area is close to the A59 and has a public transport connection to Ilkley and Grassington.

2.21    A number of villages also form clusters of settlements in relatively close proximity to one another or to a market town where services may be shared and accessed via public transport, walking or cycling. For example in the north of the plan area Burton in Lonsdale and Ingleton are in relatively close proximity to and have good public transport connections with the market town of High and Low Bentham.

2.22    In the central part of the plan area the villages of Clapham, Giggleswick, Langcliffe (which is located just over the plan area boundary in the National Park) and Rathmell form a cluster of settlements that have good public transport connections and are either within walking and /or cycling distance of the market town of Settle.    

2.23    In the south of the plan area the villages of Embsay, Carleton, Cononley and Low Bradley have good and frequent public transport connections with Skipton (Cononley also has a railway station) and are within walking and/or cycling distance of the main market town of Skipton. Similarly, the villages of Farnhill, Kildwick, Sutton in Craven and Cowling form a cluster of settlements around the larger village of Glusburn/Cross Hills with good and frequent public transport connections and are within walking and/or cycling distance of its wider range of services and employment opportunities.

2.24    Elsewhere in the plan area, there is a dispersed pattern of small villages and hamlets reflecting the rural nature of the District, which is within the top ten most sparsely populated local authority areas in England.[14]

Natural and Built Environment

2.25    Craven has a unique and outstanding natural and built environment, which is reflected in local, national and international landscape and biodiversity designations together with designated and non-designated heritage assets.

2.26    The Craven plan area sits alongside the western boundary of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, and has its own important, distinctive rural landscapes which provide a high quality landscape setting for the National Park, and for the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) which covers an extensive part of the plan area. The underlying gritstone and limestone geologies of the plan area, and the Aire Gap serves to effectively denote the change from limestone geology to the north to gritstone geology to the south and the effects of glaciation also serve to derive a rich and diverse landscape character and quality in Craven.

2.27    The market towns of Skipton and Settle and the larger villages of Ingleton, Giggleswick, Hellifield, Gargrave and Embsay are situated within the setting of or bisected by the national park boundary. The village of Clapham is bisected by the boundary of both the national park and the Forest of Bowland AONB, thus forming a unique dual-gateway to these areas, making the village popular with photographers, birdwatchers, cyclists and walkers, providing potential leisure/tourism opportunities. The market town of Bentham is also situated within the setting of the Forest of Bowland AONB. The three market towns of Skipton, Settle and Bentham are located in river valleys below steep sided Pennine uplands and moors. These valleys have long been important transport routes across the Pennines and Craven’s central position in the north of England within the Pennines is integral to the past growth of its historic settlements.

2.28    The Craven plan area has a built environment of exceptional quality with many of its historic market towns and villages having a distinctive character derived from a blend of the agricultural character of North Yorkshire with Pennine industrial heritage, associated with the building of the Leeds -Liverpool Canal, the railways, early watermills, textile mills and mill workers housing. The attractive historic market town of Settle for instance is notable for the survival of its many 17th and 18th century buildings, its steep lanes and narrow 'ginnels' as well as buildings and structures associated with the Settle-Carlisle Railway. The historic market town of Skipton has a unique character with its fine medieval buildings and street pattern juxtaposed with its textile mills, chimneys and terraced housing and the buildings, bridges, locks and other structures associated with the Leeds & Liverpool Canal and Thanet Canal.

2.29    What is also notable about Craven, is that there is very little, if any, derelict land or buildings within its settlements and many former historic mills have been conserved and converted for other uses, including housing and employment. Many former contaminated industrial sites have also been remediated and redeveloped for housing.

2.30    The rich heritage of Craven is reflected in the number of heritage designations including 888 Listed Buildings, 31 Scheduled Monuments, including the Park Hill Earthwork (Civil War Battery in Skipton), 2 registered Parks and Gardens, including Broughton Hall, which is considered to be the best surviving example of work by William Andrews Nesfield and Gledstone Hall, which features a planting scheme by Gertrude Jekyll, and 29 Conservation Areas.[15]

2.31    The plan area is also rich in biodiversity and has a number of biodiversity or geodiversity designations of European and national importance, including a small part of the South Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC) in the south of the plan area and 12 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) spread across the whole plan area. There are more than eighty Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINC) located across the plan area and Craven District also has extensive areas of Ancient Woodland (186 sites).

2.32    With such a wealth of natural and built assets, it is perhaps unsurprising that the Craven plan area is a popular place for people to live, work and visit. Recreational opportunities abound with an extensive rights of way network, and the national long distance footpath, the Pennine Way passes through the area. There are good cycling opportunities in the area with access to the National Cycle Network at Gargrave, Embsay, Giggleswick, Clapham and Ingleton. The Way of the Roses and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal towpath present additional potential for active recreation and leisure.

People and Demographics

2.33    Craven District has a total population of 55,801[16]. About 82% of the total District population live in the Craven plan area.[17] The population of Craven increased by 11% between 1991 and 2011, however when this growth in population is examined in more detail by age group, it is clear that this growth in population was not balanced across different age groups.   Over this period, the proportion of the population aged 0-15 increased by 4% but the proportion of those aged 16-39 reduced by 16.7%. Older age groups increased significantly, with those aged 40-59 increasing by 29.2% and those aged 60 and over increasing by 30%.[18]

2.34    Official population projections[19] indicate that the resident population in Craven will continue to age. Whilst this may happen in many areas throughout the country as people continue to live longer, the projections indicate that this is likely to be particularly acute in Craven compared to the Yorkshire and Humber region or England as a whole. The percentage of the population aged 65+ in Craven is expected to increase from 25% in 2014 to 34% by 2032 (a 9% increase), with the percentage aged 80+ expected to increase from 7% to over 12% (a 5% increase). This is at a substantially higher rate than the expected change in both Yorkshire and Humber and in England, where the percentage aged 65+ is projected to increase by 5%, and the population aged 80+ by 3%. The 2014-SNPP statistics show Craven’s median age in 2014 is 49, which is significantly above the Yorkshire and Humber and England’s median average age in 2014 at 40.[20]

2.35    The old age dependency (OAD) ratio measures the relationship between the size of the population aged 65+ and the population aged 16–64. Craven has an OAD of 42 in 2014, compared to a national average for England of 27. This means that the 65+ population of Craven is equivalent to 42% of the 15-64 age group population, compared to just 27% across England in aggregate.[21] In Craven, the OAD is expected to rise over the 2012 to 2032 plan period from 39.2 to 66.4 (a change of 27.2).[22]

2.36    The ageing of the resident population has important implications for the future prospects for Craven as a place to live, work and play and raises important issues that the Local Plan Strategy will need to address, including effects on the size and structure of the local labour force, the expected profile of future household formation, the balance and mix of Craven’s communities, issues of loneliness and isolation, fuel poverty and effects on the provision of services.

Housing

2.37    House prices in Craven (as in many places elsewhere in the UK) have increased significantly over the period 2000 to 2015. Median house prices in 2000 were £70,000, but by 2016 median house prices were £189,475, an increase of 170.7%.[23] When compared to the seven other district authority areas within North Yorkshire , Craven is the fifth least affordable district (after York) with a house price to median income ratio of 7.7 . Similarly, the lower quartile income to lower quartile house prices ratio is 7.7.[24] A recent study shows that there is an annual net imbalance of 126 affordable dwellings in Craven District as a whole, with most of this need (87.3%) for 1 and 2 bedroomed dwellings.[25]

2.38    There are a total of 27,800 dwellings in Craven District of which 938 are vacant, resulting in a total of 26,862 occupied dwellings. The overall vacancy rate is 3.4% which compares with a vacancy rate of 2.6% across England[26].

2.39    The vast majority of the dwelling stock in Craven are houses (90.8%) with flats/apartments only making up 9.2% of the dwelling stock. In terms of dwelling size, most dwellings (63.6%) are three bedrooms or more, 28.6% are two bedroomed and only 7.7% are one bedroomed.[27]

2.40    With respect to tenure of properties, 73.1% of properties are owned, with 17.4% of properties privately rented and 9.5% of properties as affordable rent or shared ownership.[28]  

Key Issues – Craven Plan Area

2.41    Arising from the context of the Craven plan area, the following key issues have been identified:

  • Falling resident workforce: The existing housing stock is increasingly occupied by one or two person older/retired households. The area is also attractive to families, so new housing would help to enable younger households to move to Craven and access the housing market which will help to rebalance the age profile of the area; maintain mixed and balanced communities with access to services and improve the supply of local labour for businesses. The provision of smaller properties will also enable older households to downsize and free up larger housing units. 
  • Affordable housing need: House prices and rents relative to local incomes are high. In common with many parts of the UK, house prices have not readjusted relative to wages since the price rises of the 2000s. This has resulted in considerable affordable housing need. 
  • Greenfield Development: The limited supply of brownfield land means that to meet objectively assessed development needs, greenfield sites will be required for development. 
  • High Quality Environment: Meeting objectively assessed development needs will need to be reconciled with the appropriate protection of the plan area’s outstanding environment, including its natural and historic assets. 
  • Employment land: Demand from local business for space to grow and limited serviced employment land available. 
  • Transport: There are opportunities for improved connectivity and economic links with Lancashire and West Yorkshire via road and rail networks.

 

SECTION 3: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

VISION FOR CRAVEN IN 2032

Following a period of sustainable growth and change in Craven, there is a greater equality amongst its communities in terms of housing choice, better paid local job opportunities, more opportunities for pursuing a healthy and active lifestyle and access to services upon which residents, of all ages, depend. Craven is a distinctive and attractive place to live, work and visit, offering a fulfilling and vibrant community life.

Most new homes are situated within and around market towns and villages (on previously developed land where it has been possible and appropriate), between extensive public open spaces, connecting people to the countryside and creating corridors for wildlife. The location, design and sustainable construction of these new homes, along with business premises and other commercial enterprises has reduced carbon emissions, fuel poverty and waste and respects the distinctive character and heritage of their surroundings, reinforcing a ‘sense of place’. The new homes have good access by walking, cycling, public transport and car to local facilities, employment areas, town centres and the countryside.

New well connected and serviced employment locations facilitate business creation, growth and productivity, and enable residents to work locally and obtain higher salaries.

Craven’s high quality landscape and treasured environmental assets are conserved and are enjoyed by everyone.

NORTH AREA

The market town of Low and High Bentham is thriving, following a period of sustainable growth and change and is a focus for most new homes and jobs in the north area. New homes and employment areas in the smaller centre of Ingleton are also helping to support the North Craven economy. Residents in the smaller settlement of Burton-in-Lonsdale enjoy a vibrant community life with good access to local services.

In Bentham, new and proportionate development has brought environmental and economic improvements securing a sustainable future for the spirited working market town. A new park provides recreation, cultural and social opportunities for residents and visitors. The tourism economy continues to grow through promotion of Bentham’s location as a gateway to the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and the town is capitalising on its’ rail links to the west coast main line, Lancaster, Leeds and Bradford.

At Ingleton, regeneration opportunities encouraged by new development are boosting the tourism economy, based on the area’s rich heritage, cultural and environmental assets, including Ingleton Viaduct, Riverside Park and Ingleton Waterfalls. The type and mix of new homes and jobs support a balanced local population and a range of facilities serving the local community and tourist economy. The village centre provides a lively mix of shops, services, cafes, pubs and restaurants in a stunning setting with access to outdoor sports and recreation.

MID AREA

The market town of Settle is the focus of most new homes and jobs in the mid area supporting a balanced population that includes working people and families. The growth of the town will have been achieved in a manner which has retained both its intimate feel and its distinctive character. The smaller villages of Clapham, Giggleswick, Rathmell and Hellifield are also thriving local communities.

In Settle, the historic market place and railway station on the world famous Settle- Carlisle Railway are the focal points of this well-connected hub for the Yorkshire Dales that has a concentration of shops, services, cultural facilities, creative businesses and industry. Older residents in particular are able to benefit from the town’s intimate feel and large amount of facilities for its size.

SOUTH AREA

Skipton, the surrounding villages of Gargrave, Carleton, Embsay, Bradley and Cononley and the settlements in south Craven of Glusburn, Cross Hills, Farnhill, Kildwick, Sutton-in-Craven and Cowling are an ever popular location with families due to the winning combination of a high quality local environment, good schools and good transport links to the Leeds-Bradford and Manchester conurbations.

New, innovative and diversified employment development within high quality local environments at Skipton, Cononley and the established Broughton Hall Business Park, contribute to the prosperity of the area and the wider city region economy of Leeds and the economy of the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) area. The tourism economy is flourishing, based on the area’s rich heritage, cultural and environmental assets, such as the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, the Embsay with Eastby – Bolton Abbey Steam Railway, Bolton Abbey, the Settle-Carlisle Railway, Broughton Hall Estate, Skipton Castle and Woods, the Craven Museum and Gallery and the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

As the largest settlement in the district, Skipton is the main focus for growth in Craven. New public open spaces and family facilities mean that the town centre continues to thrive. Residents, workers and visitors alike appreciate the blend of street markets, independent shops, national retailers and a wide range of other essential services in a historic setting of townscape and landscape.   Skipton also offers a broad range of employment opportunities, along with a diverse evening economy and cultural offer.

PLAN OBJECTIVES

PO1: Achieve patterns of development supported by adequate and appropriate infrastructure which:

  • Make best use of available resources
  • Promote sustainable travel movements
  • Nurture high quality environments and community life
  • Promote health, wellbeing and equality.

PO2: Conserve and enhance the high quality local environment including reinforcing the distinctive character of Craven’s towns, villages, green infrastructure, biodiversity, ecological networks and cultural heritage.

PO3: Conserve and enhance the character and settings of Craven’s landscapes and the special qualities of the protected landscapes of the Forest of Bowland AONB and the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

PO4: Maintain a continuous supply of housing land to meet housing needs throughout the plan period.

PO5: Improve housing choice in terms of house type, size, tenure, price and location.

PO6: Enhance the vitality of market towns and larger village centres and improve the provision of local community services and facilities in smaller settlements.

PO7: Provide sufficient and suitable employment land to enable businesses to grow and enhance their productivity and identify locations for new and diversified employment development related to a high quality local environment, the tourism economy and cultural opportunities.

PO8: Address and mitigate flood risk as a response to climate change and as a barrier to local economic growth.

PO9: Encourage renewable forms of energy generation where appropriate to reduce carbon emissions, waste and water use arising from local development.

PO10: Achieve the diversification and growth of the rural based and farming economy.

Presumption in Favour of Sustainable Development and Meeting the Challenge of Climate Change

3.1       The principal aim of the Local Plan is to promote sustainable development in Craven.   The purpose of the two policies SD1 and SD2 below is to embrace three key planning principles and embed them in the Craven Local Plan:

  1. a) The presumption in favour of sustainable development as defined in the National Planning Policy Framework.
  2. b) The statutory requirement for decision taking in Section 38(6) of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, which states that the statutory Development Plan must be the starting point in the consideration of planning applications for the development or use of land.
  3. c) The statutory requirement of section 19 (1A) of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 which states that development plan documents must (taken as a whole) include policies designed to secure that the development and use of land in the local planning authority's area contribute to the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change.

 

POLICY SD1: THE PRESUMPTION IN FAVOUR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Craven local plan provides a positive planning framework for guiding development and change in Craven in line with national planning policy. At the heart of the local plan is the aim to deliver sustainable growth.

The council will take a positive and proactive approach to the consideration of development proposals that reflects the presumption in favour of sustainable development that is contained in the national planning policy framework (NPPF).

The council will take a proactive approach and will work co-operatively with people and organisations wishing to carry out development and applying for planning permission, to find solutions to secure sustainable development that meets relevant plan policies and can be approved wherever possible.

Development that accords with the provisions of the local plan (and neighbourhood plan where applicable) will be approved unless material considerations indicate otherwise.

Where the local plan (or neighbourhood plan where applicable) is silent, or where relevant policies have become out of date, proposals for development will be approved, unless there are sound planning reasons why development should not be approved, taking into account whether:

a)        any adverse impacts of development would outweigh the benefits, when assessed against the national planning policy framework (taken as a whole); or

b)        specific policies in the national planning policy framework indicate that development should be restricted.

POLICY SD2: MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The Craven local plan adopts proactive strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change, when guiding developmental change in Craven in line with national planning policy. The local plan supports the move to a low carbon future, and in this regard the local plan:-

1)     proposes new development in locations which reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and adopts a spatial strategy which provides for such a spatial framework;

2)     proposes new development in locations of low flood risk;

3)     actively supports energy efficiency improvements to existing buildings, and

4)     supports renewable and low carbon technologies.

The local plan takes account of climate change over the long term, including factors such as flood risk, water supply and changes to biodiversity and landscape. New development will be planned to reduce vulnerability to the range of impacts arising from climate change. When new development is brought forward in areas which may be vulnerable, care will be taken to ensure that risks can be managed through suitable adaptation measures, including through the planning of green infrastructure.

Inappropriate development in areas at risk of flooding will be avoided by directing development away from areas at highest risk. However, where development is necessary, the local plan provisions will accommodate the development safely without increasing flood risk elsewhere. The Local Plan is supported by a Strategic Flood Risk Assessment for Craven, and individual planning applications will be required to be accompanied by a Flood Risk Assessment for the site and its surrounds where necessary. The assessment of planning applications will take account of advice from the Environment Agency and other relevant flood risk management bodies, such as lead local flood authorities and internal drainage boards.

The Local Plan will apply a sequential, risk-based approach to the location of development, to reduce flood risk to people and property and manage any residual risk, taking account of the impacts of climate change, by:

a)     applying the Sequential Test;

b)     if necessary, applying the Exception Test;

c)     safeguarding land from development that is required for current and future flood management;

d)     using opportunities offered by new development to reduce the causes and impacts of flooding;

e)     seeking opportunities to facilitate the relocation of development, including housing, in areas where climate change is expected to increase flood risk, to more sustainable locations.

The local plan, through its policies, seeks mitigation of climate change by promoting the reduction of the need to travel, providing for more sustainable modes of transport and providing opportunities for renewable and low carbon energy technologies. It provides opportunities for decentralised energy and heating, and promotes low carbon design approaches to reduce energy consumption in buildings.

In terms of adapting to climate change, the local plan considers future climate risks when allocating development sites to ensure risks are understood over the development’s lifetime, in addition to considering the impact of and promoting design responses to flood risk. The local plan also considers the availability of water and water infrastructure for the lifetime of the development and design responses to promote water efficiency and protect water quality. The local plan promotes adaptation approaches in design policies for developments and the public realm.

SECTION 4: STRATEGIC POLICIES AND SPATIAL STRATEGY

4.1       The local plan provides a policy framework that seeks to meet the policy objectives identified at PO1 – PO10. These objectives are informed by the context, background and issues for Craven which is presented at Section 2 of the plan.

MEETING HOUSING NEED

4.2       The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) requires local planning authorities use their evidence base to ensure that (unless there are robust grounds why not), when setting their local plan housing requirement it will meet the full objectively assessed needs for market and affordable housing in their area.

4.3       In 2014, the Court of Appeal held that the provisions of the NPPF require a two stage approach to be followed by local planning authorities when identifying a housing requirement in a local plan (Solihull MBC v Gallagher Estates Ltd (2014) EWCA Civ 1610).

4.4       The first stage involves establishing the full objectively assessed need for housing (FOAN) which disregards policy considerations and other matters such as planning constraints and land availability. The second stage involves the consideration of policy and other considerations which may justify a housing requirement in a local plan which is lower or higher than the FOAN.

4.5       In accordance with the NPPF and the National Planning Practice Guidance (NPPG) the Council has produced an evidence base which has established the full objectively assessed need for housing in the Craven District from 2012 to 2032.  

This is provided by the following documents:

  • Craven Local Plan Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) November 2017 Update
  • Craven Local Plan Demographic Forecasting Update :Addendum November 2017

4.6       The changing demography of the District such as population and age structure impacts strongly on the housing market and the type and quantity of housing required.   The household change forecast scenarios produced in the demographic research reports have been applied in the SHMA.   Economic forecasts were also used in these documents to identify what level of housing might be needed to support the estimated jobs growth in the District.

4.7       Following an analysis of these scenarios, the SHMA has concluded that the full objectively assessed housing need for housing from 2012 to 2032:

  • for the Craven District as a whole, which includes part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, is 242 dwellings per annum (4,840 dwellings), and
  • for the Craven Local Plan Area, which excludes the Yorkshire Dales National Park, is 206 dwellings per annum (4,120 dwellings)

4.8       Housing delivery in the area is complicated by the division of Craven District and the local housing market area (HMA) into two local planning authorities, Craven District Council and the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority (YDNPA).   The YDNPA adopted its Local Plan in December 2016 and is seeking to more than meet its FOAN for the National Park as a whole.

4.9       Hence for the purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraph 47 of the NPPF, the FOAN for the preparation of the Craven Local Plan is the provision of 4,120 new dwellings between 2012 and 2032 equating to an annual average of 206 dwellings.

4.10    The second stage of the process of setting a housing requirement for the Craven Local Plan, as stated above, has been undertaken in the Craven Local Plan Housing Growth Options Paper. This background paper comprises the original paper published alongside the Summer 2017 Pre- Publication Draft Plan and an addendum published alongside the Publication Draft Plan.  

4.11   The combination of these documents has meant that the plan preparation process has assessed 8 housing growth options in order to seek to establish the most appropriate when considered against reasonable alternatives. This is in accordance with paragraph 182 of the NPPF. Determined through this process, the most appropriate housing requirement for the Local Plan is 230 dwellings per annum (dpa); 4,600 dwellings in total between 2012 and 2032.

4.12    This housing requirement will more than meet the FOAN of the plan area of 206 dpa.    

4.13    Based on the latest jobs growth forecasts for Craven District, the plan’s housing delivery requirement will provide a sufficient labour force to support the latest economic forecasts. The employment land requirement set out in Policy SP2 of this plan is in alignment with the demographic scenario used to derive the FOAN and the housing requirement.

4.14    The SHMA 2017 Update identifies a need for 126 dpa affordable homes across the HMA (Craven District). Plan preparation has considered whether the Local Plan could be expected to fully meet the need for affordable housing.   The viability of providing for a proportion of market housing, along with other planning obligations, for affordable housing has been assessed. The minimum proportion for affordable housing that should be required on greenfield sites has been assessed as 30%. This is evidenced in the Craven Local Plan Viability Assessment Addendum: (November 2017).   This proportion means that the 230 dpa housing requirement will not meet the full need for affordable housing. However, the higher growth options assessed in the Local Plan Housing Growth Options Paper have been rejected because of their conflict with the plan’s spatial strategy and the significant uncertainty over their deliverability. It is estimated that just less than 60% of the Craven District’s affordable housing need would be met from new housing provision in this plan and the Yorkshire Dales National Park Plan (2016). In addition to this provision the Council seeks to increase the provision of affordable housing through its action plans and strategies and on all opportunity sites, including existing properties.

4.15    For example, Priority 4 of the Council’s Housing Action Plan 2015/16 seeks to return empty properties into use and promote opportunities to registered providers to acquire/lease and refurbish/renovate empty properties.

4.16    Furthermore, the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Housing Action Plan 2015/16 seeks to maximise delivery of affordable housing via planning obligations and other means. This Action Plan proposes to achieve this objective through the establishment of a York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Local Enterprise Partnership wide Registered Provider (RP) forum and identify and engage with RPs not active in the area to promote potential opportunities. This Action Plan also seeks to identify and use opportunities to re-develop or re-use existing residential or commercial property for new housing.

4.17    Finally, the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Housing Strategy 2015- 2021 provides the overall strategic basis for these action plans and at this strategic level seeks to continue to make the best use of existing stock and increase the supply of good quality new homes across all tenures and locations in line with Local Plans.    

4.18    The delivery of an annual average of 230 dpa over the plan period will be a challenge.   However with the Local Plan allocating land for more housing than the 4,600 housing requirement; with no proposed phasing for the development of these sites; and with a good proportion of these sites available for development in the first five years of the plan period, there is good reason to be optimistic on delivery.     Furthermore, the Council initiative ‘Great Place’, to attract younger people into the District, and the recent development partnership the Council has agreed with Barnfield Property Investment Ltd to promote and facilitate housing development schemes across the plan area, will make an important contribution to delivering the right number of dwellings in the right places for the right people.  

 

POLICY SP1: MEETING HOUSING NEED

To meet the housing needs of Craven, provision is made for 4,600 net additional dwellings in the plan area over the period 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2032. This is a minimum provision and equates to an annual average housing requirement of 230 net additional dwellings per annum.

The housing requirement will be provided through all of the following:-

a) Net dwellings completed since 1 April 2012;

b) Sites with planning permission or under construction;

c) New site allocations identified in the local plan at Policies SP5, SP6, SP7, SP8, SP9, SP10 and SP11 in accordance with the distribution strategy set out at Policy SP4;

d) Housing allowance for Tier 5 settlements, open countryside and small sites across the plan area identified in accordance with the distribution strategy set out at Policy SP4.

Housing Monitoring shows that 924 net dwellings have been completed between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2018, the balance of the housing provision for the remainder of the plan period to be provided through b), c) and d) above is therefore 3676 net additional dwellings

ECONOMIC GROWTH

4.19    The delivery of new housing in Craven will also need to be balanced with the approach to facilitating economic growth and providing employment opportunities for residents and entrepreneurs.

4.20    To assist the Council in reaching a determination of the appropriate level of employment land that may need to be allocated in the Local Plan to align with the housing needs of the plan area, consultants Lichfields (formerly Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners) were commissioned to undertake an Employment Land Review (ELR March 2017 and ELR Addendum November 2017.)

4.21    Lichfields considered five different scenarios of future employment space requirements, based on a number of approaches which reflect economic growth (Experian, REM); past development trends and potential labour supply scenarios (using three different dwelling requirements adapted from the SHMA 2017).

4.22    In summary, the range of employment land requirements resulting from the five scenarios (including an allowance for a margin of choice and the replacement of losses) is between 27ha and 32ha.

4.23    The SHMA 2017 indicates that the housing OAN for the Craven Local Plan area is 206 dwellings per annum, therefore a figure of 32ha at the top of the range is likely to be required for housing needs and employment land needs to be reasonably aligned.

4.24    The Employment Land Review (March 2017) compared the realistic range of employment land requirement against the existing supply of employment space in Craven[29] The Council has also assessed (using the assessment methodology of the ELR) an additional existing employment site at Ingleton, as being suitable for inclusion within the existing supply of employment space and is safeguarded under Policy EC2. Table 1 below sets out the range of employment land requirement and the existing supply of employment space in Craven together with the surplus/shortfall that exists.

Table 1

Demand/Supply Balance (ha)

Requirement for B Class Space (ha)

27 - 32

Existing Supply of Employment Space (net) (ha)

16.12

Surplus (+) Shortfall (-) (ha)

-10.88 to -15.88

4.25    As Table 1 above shows, there is a shortfall of about 11 to 16 hectares of employment land to meet the realistic range of employment land requirement for the plan period 2012 to 2032.

4.26    The evidence suggests that the realistic range of employment land requirement is relatively narrow (5ha), but it is considered appropriate to indicate a minimum level of provision to ensure that the Local Plan strategies for housing and economic growth are aligned and complementary to deliver a balanced pattern of growth in Craven over the period 2012 to 2032. To achieve this, Policy SP2 proposes that a minimum of 32ha of employment land for B Class Uses be provided in the plan area in accordance with the overall growth strategy set out at Policy SP4.

4.27    This is not to say that economic growth should be confined to land allocations or existing sites and commitments identified in the plan. In line with Policy SD1 and the presumption in favour of sustainable development, proposals for economic related development/employment generating uses on unidentified sites that accord with the spatial strategy will be supported subject to a number of criteria. See Policies SP2, EC1, EC2 and EC3.

4.28    As well as identifying suitable employment land the local plan seeks to facilitate economic growth in the plan area by supporting measures to improve the transport connectivity of the plan area with the wider Leeds City Region, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumbria and Greater Manchester, including the potential re-instatement of the Skipton to Colne railway line to meet the strategic transport priorities of the North Yorkshire Local Transport Plan ( LTP4) 2016 to 2045, and the potential re-opening of Cross Hills Railway Station to contribute to the aims of the HS2 Growth Strategy of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority to improve the wider rail network serving the Leeds City Region.

POLICY SP2: ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND BUSINESS GROWTH

The local economy will grow, diversify and generate new employment and productivity opportunities. This will be achieved by:

a)  Making provision for a minimum of 32 hectares gross of employment land over the plan period for B1, B2 and B8 Uses through:

i)       Safeguarding existing employment land and existing employment land commitments for B1, B2 and B8 uses (in Policy EC2); and

ii)     Allocating 15.6 ha gross of additional employment land for B1, B2 and B8 Uses in Skipton (Policy SP5), Settle (Policy SP6) and Ingleton (Policy SP9)

b)  Supporting sustainable economic activity within towns, villages and the rural areas, including the sustainable growth of the existing employment cluster at Broughton Hall Business Park;

c)   Supporting enhanced transport connectivity with the wider Leeds City Region, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumbria and Greater Manchester. This includes:-

i)       capacity and congestion mitigation improvements;

ii)     pedestrian and cycle links to enhanced public transport facilities;

iii)    protection of the original double track route of the Skipton to Colne railway line for future rail transport use as identified on the policies map, and

iv)    support for the re-opening of former Cross Hills Railway Station by safeguarding land at the former railway station from other forms of development, as identified on the policies map.

Individual development proposals will be considered under Policy EC1: Employment & Economic Development

HOUSING MIX AND DENSITY

4.29    The local plan seeks to create better places, meet housing requirements and the needs of a range of residents, ensure that the right housing is delivered, and land is used in an effective and efficient manner. A flexible policy to guide housing mix and density will help to achieve this by ensuring that the general thrust of housing provision matches identified needs as closely as possible, even though density and mix may vary from site to site.

4.30    The NPPF (para 50), expects local authorities to identify the size, type, tenure and range of housing that is required in particular locations, reflecting local demand. In response, the Council’s latest Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) Update 2017 provides the following general view on the overall housing mix the local population is likely to need over the plan period:

SHMA Update 2017

Suggested dwelling mix by market and affordable dwellings (Page 89, Table 7.3)

Overall dwelling size mix

Market (%)

Affordable (%)

Overall (%)

1/2 Beds

18.9

87.4

39.4

3 Beds

57.3

11.8

43.7

4 Beds

23.8

0.8

16.9

This overall mix assumes a broad tenure split of 70% market and 30% affordable.

4.31    The mix of housing to be planned for is likely to influence the density of housing to be planned for, because smaller homes tend to produce higher densities and larger homes lower densities.   This relationship between housing mix and housing density is explored in the Council’s background paper “Approaching Housing Density and Mix” (February 2017).

4.32   Based on the SHMA’s general view on the overall mix of housing needed, the background paper would suggest that 32 dwellings per hectare (dph) (net)[30] is an appropriate general guide to the overall density of housing that should be planned for. This guiding density figure should be broadly applicable across the plan area, although proposals for brownfield development with a significant element of conversion (which are likely to be in the minority) should be approached individually in terms of their housing mix and density.

4.33   On sites allocated for development under Policies SP5 to SP11, proposals will be expected to accord with Policy SP3, below, unless the policy is superseded by site-specific requirements set out in the development principles. Schemes with lower or higher densities or mix proportions may be acceptable and justified where it is demonstrated that the proposals meet local plan objectives or deliver sustainable forms of development.

4.34   In determining planning applications, the council will have regard to the overall need to deliver a mix and range of house types and sizes and will have regard to the most up to date evidence of need/demand from the SHMA and any other sources, such as the local Housing Register (which is a continually updated waiting list for rented affordable housing). Where applicants propose a mix of housing that does not appear to take account of identified needs, they will be expected to provide credible reasons and robust evidence to support their proposals.

4.35   Policy SP3, which follows, will help to guide the mix and density of new homes provided in Craven, in order to promote balanced mixed communities and to ensure that overall provision matches overall needs as closely as possible, land resources are used effectively and efficiently, and proper account is taken of evidence, scheme viability and site-specific circumstances.

POLICY SP3: HOUSING MIX AND DENSITY

The mix and density of new housing developments will ensure that land is used in an effective and efficient manner to address local housing needs. This will be achieved in the following ways:

a) The local planning authority will require new housing developments to provide an appropriate mix of housing having regard to the dwelling size and mix recommended in the SHMA, its successor or other appropriate and up to date evidence of local housing need.

b) The local planning authority will require new housing developments to be developed at appropriate densities, which make effective and efficient use of land and have regard to local and site-specific circumstances. In typical greenfield developments or in brownfield developments with no significant element of conversion, the appropriate housing density should be approximately 32 dwellings per hectare (net).

c) The local planning authority will be flexible in its requirements for housing mix and density where this is necessary to ensure scheme viability, to take account of local variations in housing need, to better promote balanced mixed communities or to achieve other local plan objectives.

SPATIAL STRATEGY AND HOUSING GROWTH

4.36    In arriving at the preferred spatial strategy, consideration has been given to the roles of settlements, their respective functions and level of services and consideration of their ability to accommodate growth and improve the mix of housing.

Settlement Hierarchy

4.37    The market town of Skipton is the largest town in the District and plan area (by a considerable margin), located in the south of the plan area in the strategic ‘Aire Gap’ through the Pennines linking Yorkshire with Lancashire. It contains the administrative functions of the District Council and is the base for a range of North Yorkshire County Council services. Skipton has the largest town centre, offers the widest range of employment opportunities, goods and services in the District and plan area and is well connected with the A road network and rail network. Skipton is therefore identified as a Tier 1 Principal Town Service Centre in the settlement hierarchy.

4.38    The market towns of Settle and Bentham, and the villages of Glusburn/Cross Hills, Ingleton and Gargrave are all smaller settlements than Skipton. However, the market towns of Settle and Bentham serve a wide rural hinterland in the mid and north sub areas of Craven and this elevates their role and function in the settlement hierarchy to Tier 2 Key Service Centres.

4.39    Glusburn/Cross Hills, Ingleton and Gargrave ,whilst acting as local service centres, do not have as substantial or wide a role in the plan area as Settle or Bentham, or as in the case of Glusburn/Cross Hills, are not subject to the levels of constraint that limits their development potential. As such Glusburn/Cross Hills, Ingleton and Gargrave perform a tertiary role in the settlement hierarchy as Tier 3 Local Service Centres.

4.40    At the next level, are villages with basic services and some of these are bisected by the Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary. They are Tier 4 settlements and they provide a minor service role within the rural areas. Smaller villages and hamlets fall within Tier 5 of the settlement hierarchy. Their service role is generally limited to the residents of the settlement itself and the local rural community. Tier 5 settlements are all those villages and hamlets in the plan area which have 15 or more residential properties closely grouped together and not classified as a Tier 4 settlement and above. Villages and hamlets which do not have this level of closely grouped buildings relate more to the countryside than a built up area.

4.41    The settlements included in the settlement hierarchy are presented in Table 2 below:

Table 2 – Settlement Hierarchy

Tier

Role and Function

Settlement

1

Principal Town Service Centre

Skipton

2

Key Service Centres

High and Low Bentham,

Settle

3

Local Service Centres

Gargrave

Glusburn and Cross Hills

Ingleton

4a

Villages with Basic Services

Burton-in –Lonsdale

Carleton

Cononley

Cowling

Farnhill and Kildwick

Hellifield

Low Bradley

Sutton-in-Craven

4b

Villages with Basic Services Bisected by Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary

Bolton Abbey

Clapham

Embsay

Giggleswick

Long Preston

5

Small villages and hamlets

Broughton, Bell Busk, Coniston Cold, Draughton, Eastby (bisected by Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary), East Marton, Halton East, Kildwick Grange, Lothersdale, Lower Westhouse, Newby, Rathmell, Stirton (bisected by Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary), Thornton-in-Craven, Tosside, West Marton and Wigglesworth.

 

Distribution of Growth

4.42    To meet the aims and objectives of the local plan and to respond to the issues identified in it and in the underpinning evidence, the following spatial strategy for the distribution of growth will deliver sustainable patterns of development in Craven. A number of alternatives have been considered and assessed in the Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and were subject to consultation in April/May 2016 and June 2017. The SA concluded that the plan’s spatial strategy is the most sustainable option to meet the aims and objectives identified and there were no substantive objections to this spatial strategy.

4.43    Both the settlement hierarchy and growth distribution strategy recognise the primacy of Skipton as the principal town in Craven and focus for growth, along with the settlements of Settle and High Bentham as secondary centres for growth as key service centres in the mid and north sub areas.

4.44    In recognition of the relative function of settlements, whilst taking account of physical constraints, a lower level of growth is directed towards Glusburn/Cross Hills, Ingleton and Gargrave, as Tier 3 local service centres.

4.45    As set out above, Tier 4 settlements comprise villages with basic services (4a) and villages with basic services that are bisected by the YDNP boundary (4b). Overall, a limited level of growth is directed towards Tier 4 settlements (the spatial strategy of the plan, accompanied by its sustainability appraisal, supported up to 2.5% of the plan area’s growth for each Tier 4 settlement). Allocated growth is not directed to Bolton Abbey and Long Preston as Tier 4b settlements for the following reasons:-

  • The majority of the built settlement of Long Preston is located within the Yorkshire Dales National Park and no land has been made available to allocate growth in the very small part of the village located in the Craven Plan area;
  • Bolton Abbey is not allocated a specific planned level of housing growth in the spatial strategy in view of its heritage assets.   Instead, limited housing growth is supported by Policy EC4A as part of a comprehensive masterplan for additional tourism-led, mixed use development at Bolton Abbey.

4.46    The plan seeks to deliver limited growth in the Tier 5 settlements which comprise small villages and hamlets, some of which have no shops or services. To allow a limited, but proportionate amount of new residential development the plan therefore supports around 1.5% of the total housing growth in the lowest tier of the hierarchy. About 4.5% of the plan’s total housing growth is supported in the countryside and on small sites across the plan area. This reflects the rural nature of the plan area and the number of agricultural workers dwellings, residential conversions of redundant or disused rural buildings, rural affordable housing schemes and small self-build projects, as evidenced by past completions.

4.47    In order to ensure that the plan’s balanced sustainable spatial strategy is implemented, the focus of growth will be through the delivery of the plan’s land allocations for housing and employment, and any opportunities that come forward during the plan period on previously developed land or other appropriate land within Tier 1 to 5 settlements. However, in the light of the spatial strategy’s low levels of growth planned for Tier 5 settlements as a whole and their relatively small size, housing proposals within their built up area is to be limited to around 4 dwellings unless special circumstances justify a higher figure.    

4.48    To assist the implementation of the spatial strategy, a sequential preference in this policy has been given to the delivery of the plan’s site allocations for housing and employment. A plan led approach to town and country planning is one of the core principles of the Government’s National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). This sequential preference seeks to ensure that planning for housing in Craven is genuinely plan led.

4.49    Nevertheless it may still be appropriate to support the release of land for housing on land outside a settlement’s main built up area in addition to the plan’s land allocations in Tier 1 to 4 settlements. Circumstances may change in relation to the availability of, and likely yield from, the plan’s land allocations, and planning permissions may lapse due to changed circumstances. If circumstances mean that land will not come forward during the plan period, and the planned growth for a settlement is clearly not being delivered, then other sustainable housing development on land adjoining that settlement will, in principle, be supported. Set out below is how the Council will monitor the delivery of each settlements’ planned level of growth.

4.50    The planned level of growth in a particular settlement is the amount of dwellings which the plan estimates should be built in that settlement by the end of the plan period. This figure is provided in the right hand column of the policy table below e.g. Skipton, Settle and Gargrave (2,300, 501 and 160 dwellings respectively). The Council will assess, on a regular basis, usually quarterly, the performance of each relevant settlement in meeting its planned growth levels. This assessment will be a ‘live’ document published on the Council’s website. For each settlement in the plan with a planned level of growth, (this excludes Bolton Abbey, Long Preston and Tier 5 settlements) the assessment will provide, in a simple tabular form, the latest data and a commentary on dwelling delivery.

4.51    This monitoring and management of housing growth seeks to ensure that each settlement’s sustainable growth is delivered and the plan’s housing requirement is met in the event of changed circumstances over the plan period. Furthermore, as referenced in Section 9: Monitoring, the plan’s housing trajectory will be updated on an annual basis in the Council’s Authority Monitoring Report.

4.52    Rural exception sites in accordance with Policy H2 will also be supported on land outside and well related to the main built up area of Tier 2 to 5 settlements. Furthermore, for Tier 1 to 4 settlements, there may be special environmental, economic and/or social circumstances that mean the benefits of a proposal to the local environment, economy or community indicate land release for development on unallocated land adjoining the main built up area should be supported. Such circumstances might include where a proposal makes a significant contribution to addressing a particular housing need which cannot be met elsewhere, or where the proposal leads to substantial environmental benefits, for example through the re-use of previously developed land and buildings.  

4.53    All proposals on unallocated land for new homes on land adjoining Tier 1 to 4 settlements will need to accord with all relevant policies of this local plan and any ‘made’ neighbourhood plans. In addition there are criteria that are particularly relevant to assess proposals on land adjoining settlements against (Policy SP4 I a) to c) and i) to vi)).   These seek to avoid a significant increase in the planned level of growth that could undermine the spatial strategy and the role of settlements in the settlement hierarchy, and ensure that the impact of the proposal on the character and appearance of the settlement and countryside is acceptable. Impact on settlement form and size are also considered appropriate to assess.

4.54    The plan does not allocate land for housing in the small Tier 5 settlements.   These settlements only have access to few or no services and sustainable growth is limited compared to the higher order settlements. The majority of suitable housing sites in these villages are likely to be below the plan’s threshold for allocation (less than 5 dwellings) and within the settlement’s main built up area.   However, housing adjoining the main built up area of these settlements is supported in principle where it is an affordable housing scheme on a rural exception site in accordance with Policy H2 of the plan.

4.55    Land not adjoining a Tier 1 to 5 settlements’ main built up area (as defined in this policy) and not allocated for development in this plan, will be classified as open countryside. In the open countryside, support for individual housing proposals will be limited to those which meet the special circumstances identified in the NPPF and the criteria in this policy. Compliance with other relevant policies of this plan will ensure the local impact of these types of proposals will be acceptable.

 

POLICY SP4: SPATIAL STRATEGY AND HOUSING GROWTH 

A sustainable pattern of growth will be promoted to deliver the spatial strategy of the plan over the plan period 2012 to 2032.   This will be achieved by:-

A.   Directing most growth towards Skipton as the Tier 1 settlement (Principal Town Service Centre);

B.   Directing a level of growth to Settle and Bentham to underpin and enhance their roles as Tier 2 settlements (Key Service Centres);

C.   Directing a proportionate level of growth to Glusburn/Cross Hills, Gargrave and Ingleton to underpin their roles as Tier 3 settlements (Local Service Centres);

D.   Directing limited growth towards Tier 4a settlements (Villages with Basic Services) to sustain their vitality and function;

E.   Directing limited growth towards Tier 4b settlements (Villages with Basic Services Bisected by the National Park Boundary) to reflect their roles as tourism hubs or gateways on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park;

F.    Directing a low level of growth to Tier 5 settlements and the open countryside to support a sustainable, vibrant and healthy rural economy and communities;

G. Delivering growth on sites that have planning permission and sites that are allocated for development under Policies SP5 to SP11;

Tier 1 – 4

H Supporting proposals for additional housing growth on non- allocated land for housing within the main built up areas** of Tier 1, 2, 3, 4a and 4b settlements provided they accord with all other relevant local plan and neighbourhood plan policies;

I.    Supporting the release of non-allocated sites for housing that adjoin the main built up area** of Tier 1 to 4 settlements where:-

a) it can be demonstrated that the planned growth in the spatial strategy for the settlement will not be delivered during the plan period, with the exception of Bolton Abbey (where Policy EC4A of this plan provides for limited new housing) and Long Preston, or

b) it is a rural exception site in accordance with Policy H2 of the local plan, or

c) development is justified by special economic, environmental and /or social circumstances.

Proposals justified under a), b) or c) above, will be supported provided that they:-

i) are consistent with the role and function of the settlement in the   spatial strategy;

ii) are proportionate to the size of the settlement;

iii) are complementary to the settlement’s form, character and  appearance;

iv) would conserve the character and appearance of the countryside;

v) would avoid contributing towards the coalescence of settlements; and

vi) accord with all other relevant local plan policies or neighbourhood plan policies.

Tier 5

J. Supporting proposals for housing within the main built up area** of Tier 5 settlements which is necessary to maintain a sustainable, vibrant and healthy rural economy and communities, provided that the proposal is in accordance with criteria I i) to vi) above and is:-

a) small in scale compared to the size of the settlement and limited to around 4 dwellings, unless justified by special economic, environmental and/or social circumstances ; or

b) for an affordable housing rural exception site in accordance with Policy H2; or

c) required in order to secure significant improvements to the environment or conservation of designated heritage assets; or

d) justified through the neighbourhood planning process, and

e) accords with all other relevant policies in the local plan.

Residential Development in the Countryside

K. Limiting proposals for new homes in the countryside away from existing settlements. Unless permitted by criteria G, I or J above, or allocated for alternative uses by other local plan policies, land outside the main built up areas of Tier 1 - 5 settlements will be defined as open countryside. Within the open countryside residential development will be supported provided that :-

a) the proposal would meet an essential need for a rural worker to live permanently at or near their place of work in the countryside;

b) the proposal is required in order to secure significant improvements to the environment or conservation of a designated heritage asset, and such development would represent the optimal viable use of a

heritage asset or would be appropriate enabling development to secure the future of heritage assets;

c) the proposal is for the re-use of one or more redundant or disused buildings and would enhance the immediate setting; or

d) the design is of exceptional quality and in accordance with the National Planning Policy Framework.

**The main built up area is defined as the settlement’s closely grouped and visually well related buildings and any associated spaces between these buildings, and excludes:

1. Individual buildings or groups of dispersed buildings or ribbon developments which are clearly detached from the main built up area of the settlement, and ribbon developments attached to the main built up area but where the housing relates more to the surrounding countryside than to the main built up area of the settlement, and

2. Gardens, paddocks and other undeveloped land within the curtilage of buildings on the edge of the settlement where land relates more to surrounding countryside than to the main built up area of the settlement, and

3. Agricultural buildings and associated land on the edge of the  settlement, and

4. Outdoor sports and recreational facilities and other formal open spaces on the edge of the settlement.

Guidelines for the distribution of new dwellings to deliver the spatial strategy is set out in the table below:-

Tier

Settlement

Proportion of housing growth (%) at 230 net dwellings pa

Housing Provision (Approx number of NET dwellings)

1

Skipton (Principal Town Service Centre)

50%

2,300

2

Settle (Key Service Centre for mid sub area)

10.9%

501

2

Low and High Bentham (Key Service Centre for north sub area)

10.9%

501

3

Glusburn/Cross Hills (Local Service Centre)

3.5%

160

3

Ingleton (Local Service Centre)

3.5%

160

3

Gargrave (Local Service Centre)

3.5%

160

 

Villages with Basic Services

4a

Burton in Lonsdale

0.4%

18

4a

Carleton

1.2%

55

4a

Cononley

2.5%

115

4a

Cowling

0.8%

37

4a

Farnhill and Kildwick

0.4%

18

4a

Hellifield

0.8%

37

4a

Low Bradley

0.8%

37

4a

Sutton in Craven

1.2%

55

4b

Villages with Basic Services that are bisected by the National Park boundary

4b

Bolton Abbey

0%

0

4b

Clapham

0.8%

37

4b

Embsay

2%

92

4b

Giggleswick

0.8%

37

4b

Long Preston

0%

0

5

Villages and hamlets

 

 

5

Tier 5 settlements:

Broughton, Bell Busk, Coniston Cold, Draughton, Eastby, East Marton, Halton East, Kildwick Grange, Lothersdale, Lower Westhouse,   Newby, Rathmell, Stirton (bisected by the Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary), Thornton-in-Craven, Tosside, West Marton, and Wigglesworth.

1.5%

69

 

Open Countryside and Small Sites Allowance  

4.5%

207

Spatial Strategy for Housing and Economic Growth – Key Diagram and Allocated Sites

4.56  The strategic policies SP1 to SP4 set out the overall spatial strategy of the local plan for housing and economic growth in terms of the scale and distribution of housing and employment development to meet objectively assessed needs over the plan period 2012-2032. The Key Diagram below provides a geographic representation of the broad locations of the plan’s spatial strategy and land uses identified in the plan policies. To realise the spatial strategy of the local plan, specific allocated sites are identified in Policies SP5 to SP11 to deliver the sustainable development that is needed.

An image of the Craven Local Plan Key Diagram

An image of the Key to symbols, used on the Key Diagram

POLICY SP5: STRATEGY FOR SKIPTON –TIER 1

Skipton is the primary focus for growth and provision is made for the following development areas to meet the housing needs, commercial and employment space in the town:

Housing Sites: 

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area

Approx. Yield

SK013

Land east of Aldersley Avenue and south of Moorview Way, Skipton

5.7

100

SK015

Cefn Glas, Shortbank Road, Skipton

0.4

14

SK044

Former allotments and garages, Broughton Road, Skipton

0.6

19

SK058

Whitakers Chocolate Factory Site, Skipton

0.3

10

SK060

Business premises and land, west of Firth Street, Skipton

1.3

121

SK061

East of canal, west of Sharpaw Avenue, Skipton

3.7

89

SK081, SK082 & SK108

Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, Skipton

C3 10.6

D1 1.8

339

SK087

Land to north of A6131 and south of A65, Skipton

1.1

35

SK088

Hawbank Fields north of Otley Road and south of A6131, Skipton

8.6

143

SK089 & SK090

Land to the north of Airedale Avenue & Elsey Croft and east of railway line, Skipton

C3 6.8

 

D1 1.8

211

SK094

Land bounded by Carleton Road, railway line and A629, Skipton

10.5

99

SK101

East of Keighley Road and south of Cawder Lane, Skipton

4

110

SK114 & SK124

Land to east of North Parade & Cawder Road garage site, Horse Close, Skipton

4.6

112

Total

C3 – 58.2

 

D1 – 3.6

1402

Mixed Use Regeneration Sites:

Site Ref

Location 

Approx. Area (Ha)

SK139

East and west of Cavendish Street, Skipton

2

SK140

Skipton Station Areas A, and B, Carleton New Road, Sandylands Business Centre, Skipton 

5.6

Total

7.6

Employment Sites

Site Ref

Location

Use Class

Approx. Area (Ha)

SK049

Land east of Skipton bypass, Skipton

B1,B2 and B8

6

SK113

Land south of Skipton Auction Mart, Skipton

B1,B2 and B8

3

SK135

Skipton Rock Quarry, Skipton

B2 and B8

1.1

Total

10.1

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

 

Development Principles for Housing Sites, Regeneration Sites and Employment Sites identified in Policy SP5

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK013

Land east of Aldersley Avenue and south of Moorview Way, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 5.7ha (including approximately 2.6ha of green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 100

Development Principles:

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         Development proposals for this site will incorporate an area of approximately 2.6ha of green infrastructure in the west, south and south east of the site to provide a buffer to the open moorland to the south and east to enhance biodiversity; to provide recreation mitigation for the North Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and to provide a new PROW connection with the existing residential area at Aldersley Avenue and the play park to the north west of the site.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the western part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site.   Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Moorview Way. A traffic impact assessment will be required.

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK015

Cefn Glas, Shortbank Road, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.4 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 14

Development Principles:

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         The site is in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Shortbank Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2 and INF3 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK044

Former allotments and garages, Broughton Road, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.6 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 19

Development Principles:

·         A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the southern and eastern part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site.   Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be included in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·         The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Niffany Gardens & Station Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK058

Whitakers Chocolate Factory Site, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.3 hectares

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 10

Development Principles:

·         Proposals for the redevelopment of this site should preserve or enhance the character or appearance of the Skipton Conservation Area. Any redevelopment proposals will be required to retain the boundary walls on Upper Union Street.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be included in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Keighley Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK060

Business premises and land, west of Firth Street, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.3 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 121 including approximately 23 units from building conversion + 98 units from new build

Development Principles:

·         Proposals for the redevelopment of this site should preserve or enhance the character or appearance of the Skipton Conservation Area. The historic Mill Buildings identified in the Heritage Impact Assessments will be retained and converted and the stone boundary wall along Firth Street shall also be retained.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified along the western boundary of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be included in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·         The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Firth Street.

·         Measures to enhance the connectivity of the canal corridor for wildlife through the use of sensitive planting and low level lighting shall be designed into any proposed scheme.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK061

East of canal, west of Sharpaw Avenue, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 3.7 ha (including approximately 0.9ha of green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 89

Development Principles:

·       Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the setting of the conservation area, which adjoins the western boundary of the site and includes the Leeds & Liverpool Canal corridor.

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       Development on this site should be set back from the Leeds & Liverpool Canal to mirror the residential development located immediately to the north of the site and to create an area of green infrastructure of approximately 0.9ha. A PROW will be created along the proposed green infrastructure corridor to promote urban short walks for exercise and recreation and to provide pedestrian links from the site to the surrounding footpath network.

·       The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·       A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the south and western part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site.   Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) where possible.

·       The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Cawder Lane. Access to Cawder Lane from Keighley Road is currently taken via the existing Horse Close Bridge, which is restricted by its width. Development proposals must therefore demonstrate how vehicular access to the site can be gained from a new crossing over the Leeds & Liverpool Canal.

·       Development proposals will be required to contribute towards the provision of highway improvements, in accordance with Policy INF7, at the following locations:

a)    The A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59 junction; and

b)    The A6131/A65 junction.

·       Measures to enhance connectivity of the canal corridor for wildlife through the use of sensitive planting and low level lighting shall be designed into any proposed scheme.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK081, SK082

& SK108

(incorporating site SK080a)

Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, Skipton

C3 Residential

D1 Education

Approx. Area: 16 ha (including approximately 3.5ha of green infrastructure and 1.8 ha for the provision of a new school in Skipton)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 339

Development Principles:

·                An area of land (1.8ha) in the north east corner of the site is safeguarded for a new primary school, unless this identified educational need is met elsewhere in the town. If this safeguarded area is no longer required for a primary school, as determined by the Local Education Authority and in accordance with Policy INF6, additional residential development will be acceptable in principle subject to meeting other local plan policies.

·                This is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton, in relatively close proximity to the Yorkshire Dales National Park and a SINC. Development proposals for this site will incorporate a green infrastructure corridor measuring approximately 3.5ha along the north and western boundary of the site to provide landscape mitigation for the Yorkshire Dales National Park, the SINC and the adjoining Skipton Conservation Area. It will also provide new PROW connections with the existing residential area at Rockwood, Aireville Park and the Railway Station beyond to deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the North Pennines Special Protection Area (SPA) & Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·                The existing tree copses in the south east of the site will be protected, retained and improved through suitable management in order to retain existing wooded areas within the site and along the Gargrave Road approach into Skipton.

·                Landscaping will be provided along the eastern boundary in order to lessen the impact of development on existing residents on the Rockwood Estate, and to provide opportunities for pedestrian links to the existing PROW network.

·                Development proposals on this site will incorporate the maintenance and restoration of the existing stone boundary walls and tree copses on the site in order to retain the existing landscape character of the site.

·                An area of land to the south of the site adjacent to Gargrave Road is designated as a Local Green Space designation (LGS) in Policy ENV10, therefore any proposed development scheme will be designed to ensure that this area of land is retained as open land and that development proposals comply with the provisions of Policy ENV10.

·                The siting and design of development on the site to conserve the setting of the Skipton Conservation Area, which adjoins the site to the south and south west of the site.

·                Proposals must demonstrate that development along the south west edge of the site would not have an urbanising effect on the setting of the Skipton Conservation Area by retaining the existing open aspect of the area proposed as LGS, immediately south of the site.

·                An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·                The site is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·          There are several access options for this site including Gargrave Road, Parkwood Way, Park Wood Drive and White Hills Lane. A Traffic Impact Assessment will be required.

·          A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·          There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site, including biodiversity within the adjoining SINC. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·          Before any development takes place, a comprehensive Masterplan for the site shall be produced in consultation with relevant stakeholders and to the satisfaction of the local planning authority, to ensure that development of the site comes forward in a coordinated way. The Masterplan will define areas of green infrastructure based on the second development principle set out above; show land safeguarded for a new primary school, if required; demonstrate connectivity of the site with the surrounding area and PROW network and will demonstrate how all the development principles for this site area to be addressed.

·          Development proposals will be required to contribute towards the provision of highway improvements, in accordance with Policy INF7, at the following locations:

a) The A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59 junction; and

b) the A6131/A65 junction.

·          Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK087

Land to the north of A6131 and south of A65, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.1 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 35

Development Principles:

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the south of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible;

·       Development proposals will seek to maximise opportunities for links to be made to existing green infrastructure networks to the existing PROW which runs along the track located immediately to the north of the site. Landscaping along the northern boundary of the site to be provided to enhance the amenity of the PROW and to filter long distance views from the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

·       A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·       The site is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton, in relatively close proximity to the Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Dwellings on the southern boundary will be front-facing, but set back from the A6131 to maintain an attractive entrance to this north eastern part of the town;

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Harrogate Road (A6131) and a footway link alongside the A6131 to the bus stop at Overdale Static Caravan Site shall be provided.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK088

Hawbank Fields north of Otley Road and south of A6131, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 8.6 ha (including approximately 4.1 ha of green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 143

Development Principles:

·       A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the south of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       This is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton, in relatively close proximity to the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Development proposals for this site will incorporate approximately 4.1 ha of green infrastructure in the north, south and east of the site to ensure that built development avoids areas of the site at risk of flooding; to provide landscape mitigation for the Yorkshire Dales National Park and to deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the North Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·       Development proposals will seek to maximise opportunities for links to be made to existing green infrastructure and PROW networks to the north, south and west of the site. The creation of a green corridor in the north of the site will continue the existing pattern of residential development on Green Acres where the dwellings are set back from Harrogate Road.

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       The site is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Harrogate Road (A6131) with an opportunity for pedestrian access to be provided onto the site from Greenacres to the west.

·       A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies. 

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK089 & SK090

Land to the north of Airedale Avenue & Elsey Croft and east of railway line, Skipton

C3 Residential

D1 Education

Approx. Area: 10.6 ha (including approximately 2 ha of green infrastructure and 1.8 ha for the provision of a new school in Skipton)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 211

Development Principles:

·       A new primary school will be provided on 1.8ha of the total site area of sites SK089 & SK090 to meet the educational requirements for Skipton over the plan period, unless this identified educational need is met elsewhere in the town. If a new primary school is no longer required on this site, as determined by the Local Education Authority and in accordance with Policy INF6, residential development will be acceptable in principle subject to meeting other local plan policies.

·       A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the west and south of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site.   Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The is a greenfield site in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton, in relatively close proximity to the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Development proposals for this site will incorporate a green infrastructure corridor along the northern and western boundary of the site to maintain the existing open, rural feel of the Otley Road approach to Skipton up to the railway bridge. It will also incorporate an existing footpath running within the site adjacent to the south west boundary, providing links to the east of Skipton and beyond. A further green infrastructure corridor will be provided adjacent to the southern boundary to provide a buffer between existing residential development at Elsey Croft and new residential development on sites SK089 & SK090. This area will also maintain an open feel to the existing PROW running along the southern boundary of the site, provide opportunities for safe walking routes to the new primary school and deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the North Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       Access to site is to be gained from Wensleydale Avenue, Airedale Avenue and Elsey Croft.

·       Development proposals will be required to contribute towards the provision of highway improvements, in accordance with Policy INF7, at the following locations:

a)    The A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59 junction; and

b)    the A6131/A65 junction.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK094

Land bounded by Carleton Road, railway line and A629, Skipton

C3 Residential

Appox. Area: 10.5 ha (including approximately 7.4 ha of green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 99

Development Principles:

·       A fluvial flood risk hazard has been identified within the south and east of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) where possible.

·       This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals for this site will incorporate an area of approximately 7.4 ha of green infrastructure in the east, west and south of the site, providing an opportunity for an area of open space/green infrastructure to be created, potentially incorporating a closed road cycle circuit track and to ensure that built development avoids areas of the site at risk from flooding. Green infrastructure on the site will incorporate the route of an existing PROW along the southern boundary of the site in order to maintain this existing link from the site to the wider area and deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the North Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the setting of the adjacent Conservation Area.

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       The site is in a prominent position on the edge of Skipton, development proposals will need to be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Carleton Road and Burnside Crescent.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK101

East of Keighley Road and south of Cawder Lane, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 4 ha (including approximately 0.6 ha of green infrastructure area)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 109

Development Principles:

·            An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·            Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the setting of the conservation area, which adjoins the western boundary of the site and includes the Leeds & Liverpool Canal corridor.

·            Measures to enhance connectivity of the canal corridor for wildlife through the use of sensitive planting and low level lighting shall be designed into any proposed scheme.

·            Development on this site will be set back from the Leeds & Liverpool Canal to create an area of green infrastructure of approximately 0.6 ha. A PROW will be created along the proposed green infrastructure corridor to promote urban short walks for exercise & recreation and to provide pedestrian links from the site to the surrounding footpath network.

·            The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·            The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·            A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the south east of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) where possible.

·            Access to the site is to be gained from Cawder Lane. Access to Cawder Lane from Keighley Road is currently taken via the existing Horse Close Bridge, which is restricted by its width. Development proposals must therefore demonstrate how vehicular access to the site can be gained from a new crossing over the Leeds & Liverpool Canal.

·            Development proposals will be required to contribute towards the provision of highway improvements, in accordance with Policy INF7, at the following locations:

a)         The A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59 junction; and

b)         the A6131/A65 junction.

·            Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK114 & SK124

Land to east of North Parade & Cawder Road garage site, Horse Close, Skipton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 4.6 ha (including approximately 1.1 ha of green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 112

Development Principles:

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·       This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Skipton. Development proposals for this site will incorporate an area of approximately 1.1 ha of green infrastructure to recognise the two existing wooded ghylls on the site in the north and central part of the site and their role in providing links to the existing PROW network, and to provide a landscape buffer to the north eastern part of the site which is steeply sloping and characterised by open moorland. The area of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the North Pennine Moors Special Protection Area (SPA) and Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·       This site is in a prominent location, development proposals will need to be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the south east of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) where possible.

·       A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Cawder Road, such as the garage site located in the south west of the site. A possible additional access point is via the existing reservoir track from Whinny Gill Road, which provides access to a residential scheme with consent to the north of the site. Access to Cawder Road from Keighley Road is currently taken via the existing Horse Close Bridge, which is restricted by its width. Development proposals must therefore demonstrate how vehicular access to the site can be gained from a new crossing over the Leeds & Liverpool Canal.

·       Development proposals will be required to contribute towards the provision of highway improvements, in accordance with Policy INF7, at the following locations:

a) The A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59 junction; and

b) the A6131/A65 junction.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK139

East and west of Cavendish Street, Skipton

Retail (A1) and commercial led mixed use.

Approx. Area: 2 ha

Overall: A retail-led mixed use regeneration opportunity.

Development Principles:

·       This site is a retail-led mixed use regeneration opportunity area on land east and west of Cavendish Street, Skipton offering potential to enhance this part of the town and meet the majority or all of the retail need for Skipton identified in Policy EC5. The site also provides opportunities to address leisure requirements in Skipton; provide improvements to environmental quality and enhance connections in the town. Proposals will also take account of the following development principles:

Use(s)

·       The site will be redeveloped for retail and commercial uses that complement and underpin the role and function of this part of Skipton whilst supporting the town centre as a whole.

·       Proposals for retail-led floorspace will accord with the provisions of Policy EC5.

Flood risk mitigation

·       A Flood Risk Assessment is required and proposals will need to address and mitigate flood risk including making use of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) to mitigate run off and localised flood risk, if possible and feasible.

·       Proposals will take account of the presence of Eller Beck and the related flood alleviation works that apply to part of the opportunity area.

Heritage significance considerations

·       A ground work assessment will be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas of potential archaeological significance.

·       Proposals will take account of and understand the significance of the Conservation Area designation that applies to part of the regeneration opportunity area.

·       Regeneration proposals will take account of the setting and significance of surrounding Listed Buildings.

·       The eastern boundary wall will be retained as part of the overall development but improved permeability through it will be considered. Other stone boundary walls throughout the site will be conserved.

·       Important views over the site to Christ Church, Belle Vue Mills and the mill chimney will be retained.

Leeds & Liverpool Canal

·       Proposals will take account of the setting and significance of the Leeds-Liverpool canal as a community and tourism asset, and a local transport corridor.

·       Proposals will take account of the potential for access and permeability to and from the Leeds Liverpool canal towpath.

Ground Conditions

·       A ground conditions assessment is required to consider the potential presence of ground contaminants potentially arising from historical uses/activities in the opportunity area.

·       Mitigation is to be provided where it is necessary.

Access

·       Principal vehicular access to be gained from Cavendish Street, Broughton Road.

·       Pedestrian access to be gained from Leeds Liverpool Canal, Gallows Bridge and to link to the bus station and town centre.

·       Secondary access could be gained from Cross Street, and/or Gas Street.

Masterplanning

A masterplan for the opportunity area, including the incorporation of the development and design principles above, will be produced in consultation with key stakeholders and to the satisfaction of the local planning authority. Development proposals will be expected to accord with the principles of the Masterplan. Regeneration should not occur on a piecemeal basis and a comprehensive approach is expected.

Development proposals for this site must accord with relevant local plan policies.

Site Assembly, Delivery

The opportunity area is in a range of ownerships and assembling the site will influence delivery timescales. Site assembly powers will be considered for use where it is expedient, appropriate and necessary for regeneration to succeed. Craven District Council is owner of part of the regeneration opportunity area.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK140

Land at Skipton Station, Broughton Road, Carleton New Road, Sandylands Business Centre, Skipton

Commercially led including employment and an element of retail and community uses.

Approx. Area: 5.6 ha

Overall: A commercially led regeneration opportunity, with a focus on commercial and employment led mixed uses, and an element of community use.

Development Principles:

·       An employment/commercially led mixed use regeneration opportunity area on land at Skipton railway station, Carleton New Road, and Sandylands Business Centre. Proposals will take the opportunity to enhance connections between the railway station and the wider town.

Use

·       Proposals will enhance the role of Skipton Railway Station as a transport hub and gateway to Skipton and the Yorkshire Dales.

·       The site will be developed for commercial and employment-led mix of uses which may include an element of ancillary retail, that complement and underpin the commercial, employment, transport, and community functions of this part of Skipton.

Access

·        Principal vehicular access to be gained from Carleton New Road and Broughton Road.

·        Pedestrian access to be gained from Gawflat Bridge and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal towpath.

·        Existing pedestrian connections to the town from the railway station will be enhanced and form a traffic free pedestrian gateway.

·        Pedestrian access from Broughton Road and Carleton New Road via the Railway Station underpass will be enabled and enhanced.

·        This regeneration area provides an opportunity for Sandylands Business Centre to be remodelled to create/enhance pedestrian access and connections to/from the railway station, Sandylands sports area and the town.

Flood risk mitigation

·        A Flood Risk Assessment is required and proposals will need to address and mitigate flood risk including making use of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) to mitigate run off and localised flood risk, if possible and feasible.

·        Proposals will take account of the proximity of Eller Beck and the associated flood alleviation works.

Heritage significance

·        A ground work assessment will be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas of potential archaeological significance.

·        Regeneration proposals will take account of the setting and significance of designated heritage assets (Conservation Area and Listed Buildings) both within the regeneration opportunity area and in the immediate surroundings. Proposals will be also be taken to improve the setting of the Listed Railway Station.

Leeds & Liverpool Canal

·        Proposals will take account of the setting and significance of the adjacent Leeds & Liverpool canal and towpath as a community asset and means to enhance the connections within Skipton.

·        Proposals will take account of the potential for access and permeability to and from the Leeds & Liverpool canal towpath.

Other services

·        Proposals will account for the relocation or retention of emergency services provision in the opportunity area.

Ground Conditions/Contamination

·        A ground conditions assessment is required to consider the potential presence of ground contaminants arising from historical uses/activities.

Existing Businesses

·       Business, commercial and leisure uses and activities are to be retained where possible and enhanced.

Masterplanning

A masterplan for the regeneration opportunity area, including the incorporation of the development and design principles above, will be produced in consultation with key stakeholders and to the satisfaction of the local planning authority. Development proposals will be expected to accord with the principles of the Masterplan. Regeneration should not occur on a piecemeal basis and a comprehensive approach to redevelopment is expected.

The opportunity area is in a range of ownerships and assembling the site will influence delivery timescales. Site assembly powers will be considered for use where it is expedient, appropriate and necessary for regeneration to succeed.

Development proposals for this site must accord with relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK049

Land east of Skipton bypass, Skipton

B1, B2, B8 Employment

Approx. Area: 6 ha

Development Principles:

·       Development proposals must be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. The Flood Risk Assessment shall incorporate the findings of both the Environment Agency’s Skipton Flood Alleviation Post-Scheme Modelling Report for Eller Beck and Waller Hill Beck and the District Council’s Post Scheme Modelling Report for the Ings Beck and Gallow Syke Water Management Project, and demonstrate that the proposed B1, B2 and B8 uses can be accommodated on land falling outside Flood Zone 3b. Should it become apparent that the Skipton Flood Alleviation Schemes have not taken the site out of Flood Zone 3b, the Council will work with relevant stakeholders to take appropriate action. This may include the preparation of a partial or full review of the Local Plan.

·       Access to the site will be gained via the Wyvern Park development scheme which has consent for business/employment floorspace and residential dwellings to the south east of the site, and/or from Ings Lane.

·       The site’s prominent location adjacent to the bypass on the town's south-east periphery and Waltonwrays Cemetery will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area and existing sensitive land uses is not adversely affected.

·       Connections, including pedestrian and cycle routes to/from the town, railway station and adjacent employment and residential areas shall be created/enhanced.

·       A ground conditions assessment is required to consider the potential presence of ground contaminants potentially arising from historical uses/activities in the area. Mitigation is to be provided where it is necessary.

·       Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK113

Land south of Skipton Auction Mart, Skipton

Mixed employment development including B1, B2, B8 and/or expansion of Craven Cattle Mart Ltd and Craven College.

Approx. Area: 3 ha

Development Principles:

·       A Flood Risk Assessment is required, as fluvial and surface water hazards have been identified within parts of the site.   Proposals for development on this site will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), unless this is not possible or feasible.

·       The site adjoins the Skipton Conservation Area and is in a prominent location on the Leeds & Liverpool Canal at an important gateway to the town. Therefore, the developer is required to carry out a detailed assessment of the likely impact of development on the character and appearance of area, including the conservation area and its setting, and to incorporate any necessary mitigation measures into the proposals. Special attention will be paid to the proposed siting, design, layout and landscaping of development to ensure that the character and appearance of the area is not adversely affected and any buildings should be set back from the canal.

·       Development of this site will be a mix of employment and economic development including B1, B2 & B8 uses and potential for expansion of adjoining existing employment area to the north to accommodate the expansion of Craven Cattle Mart Ltd and Craven College.

·       Measures to enhance connectivity of the canal corridor for wildlife through the use of sensitive planting and low level lighting shall be designed into any proposed scheme.

·        An existing PROW runs along the eastern boundary of the site. Proposals will incorporate the route of this PROW in order to maintain this link from the site to the wider existing PROW network.

·        The developer is required to arrange an investigation and assessment of the site’s archaeological interest, which may necessitate the carrying out of ground works before and/or during development. The findings of the investigation and assessment will be taken into account in the proposals and any necessary mitigation measures will be incorporated into the development, in the interests of archaeological conservation.

·        Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SK135

Skipton Rock Quarry, Skipton

B2, B8 Employment

Approx. Area: 1.1 ha

Development Principles:

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the central part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       An existing PROW runs from east to west across the site in the north. Proposals will incorporate the route of this PROW in order to maintain this link from the site to the wider existing PROW network.

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site, including biodiversity within the adjoining SINC. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

 

POLICY SP6: STRATEGY FOR SETTLE – TIER 2      

Settle is a secondary location for growth in the plan area, providing serviced employment land and housing growth to reflect the role of Settle as a rail connected key service centre for the mid sub area. Development will provide housing to meet local needs whilst employment development will ensure that a medium to long term supply of serviced employment land is delivered to provide opportunities for entrepreneurs and businesses to expand and locate in the mid sub area. Provision is made for the following sites and locations to meet these aims:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx Yield

SG021, SG066, SG080

Land to the north-west and south-west of Penny Green, Settle

3.7

80

SG025

Land to the south of Ingfield Lane, Settle

11.4

125

SG027, SG068

Land to the south of Brockhole View and west of Brockhole Lane, Settle

2.6

57

SG032

Car park, off Lower Greenfoot and Commercial Street, Settle

0.4

13

SG035

F H Ellis Garage, Settle

0.2

32

SG042

NYCC Depot, Kirkgate, Settle

0.3

10

SG079

Land to the north of Town Head Way, Settle

1.7

26

LA004

Land to north of Barrel Sykes, Settle

0.6

18

Total

 

20.9

361

Employment/Mixed Use Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx Yield

SG060

Northern part of Sowarth Industrial Estate, Settle

1.7

N/A

SG064

Land south of Runley Bridge Farm and west of B6480

5

Minimum 2.6ha for B1,B2 and B8

19

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

 

Development Principles for Housing and Employment/Mixed Use Sites identified in Policy SP6

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG021, SG066, SG080

Land to the north-west and south-west of Penny Green, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 3.7 ha (including approx. 1.2 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 80

Development Principles:

·       This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Settle. Development proposals for this site will incorporate biodiversity and landscape mitigation(s) including a green infrastructure area of approximately 1.2 ha along the south-eastern border of the site, to mitigate impact on the Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area to the east, and wider views of the site from the National Park. The area of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC). Existing dry stone boundary walls to be retained on site.

·       A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·       There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·       A hydrological investigation and bird survey in relation to impacts on River Ribble (Long Preston Deeps SSSI) is required.

·       Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of the Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area.

·       The site is in a prominent location, development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG025

Land to the south of Ingfield Lane, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 11.4 ha (including approx. 7.5 ha of additional green infrastructure, which incorporates an approved surface water management scheme in the south-east section of the site).

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 125

Development Principles:

·       This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Settle. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area. Development proposals for this site will incorporate landscape and recreation mitigation(s) including green infrastructure areas of approximately 7.5 ha through the centre of the site; the western edge of the site and connecting to the approved ‘water meadows’ surface water management scheme to the south and east of the site. Mitigation along the south-eastern boundary will include a softening of the built form with gaps and planting of tree blocks between clusters of dwellings which will be front facing towards the YDNP. Dwelling heights will be restricted to two storeys in height. Mitigation measures are to mitigate impact on the special qualities of the YDNP, the Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area and the heritage assets of the Falcon Manor Hotel and Ingfield Lodge. The areas of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Craven Limestone Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         A hydrological investigation and bird survey in relation to impacts on River Ribble (Long Preston Deeps SSSI) is required.

·         Development proposals will minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets (Grade II listed building of Falcon Manor Hotel, the undesignated heritage asset of Ingfield Lodge, and the Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area) surrounding the site and their settings.   A comprehensive landscaping scheme is required to detail how views of the development from the west will be filtered.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified to the southern and western parts of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Austwick Close and Skipton Road (B6480).

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG027, SG068

Land to the south of Brockhole View and west of Brockhole Lane, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 2.6 ha (including approx. 0.8 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 57

Development Principles:

·         This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Settle. Development proposals for this site will incorporate landscape and recreation mitigation(s) including areas of green infrastructure of approximately 0.8 ha in the southern, western and eastern parts of the site and connecting to the approved ‘water meadows’ surface water management scheme to the west of the site. The provision of green infrastructure along the southern and eastern boundaries will protect the rural nature of Brockhole Lane and provide landscape mitigation for the Yorkshire Dales National Park by softening the built form including the planting of tree blocks of native species, and providing gaps between clusters of dwellings which will be front facing towards the YDNP. Dwelling heights will be restricted to two storeys in height. Existing dry stone boundary walls to be retained on site and new dry stone boundary walls to be created to enclose the southern and eastern boundaries of the site to respect the character of Brockhole Lane and surrounding fields.   The areas of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Craven Limestone Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         A hydrological investigation and bird survey in relation to impacts on River Ribble (Long Preston Deeps SSSI) is required.

·         As the site is in a prominent location, development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the southern part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Development to protect the rural nature of the PROW along the western and eastern boundaries of the site.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Brockhole View and Brockhole Lane.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG032

Car park, off Lower Greenfoot and Commercial Street, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.4 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 13

Development Principles:

·       Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets (listed buildings and conservation areas) on the site and their settings.

·       Opportunities for further intensification of use within this accessible, town centre site in terms of housing density should be maximised, subject to specific analysis.

·       The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·       Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be addressed as far as possible in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the western part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Lower Greenfoot.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2 and INF3 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG035

F H Ellis Garage, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.2 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 32 (specialist accommodation for older people)

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (the grade II listed buildings to the north west of the site: The Terrace, No. 3 Windyridge and The Croft; and Settle Conservation Area).

·         Opportunities for further intensification of use within this accessible, town centre site in terms of housing density should be maximised, subject to specific analysis.

·         The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be addressed as far as possible in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from High Hill Grove Street to the rear.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2 and INF3 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG079

Land to the north of Town Head Way, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.7 ha (including approx. 0.9 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 26

Development Principles:

·         This is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Settle. Development proposals for this site will incorporate landscape and recreation mitigation(s) including a green infrastructure area of approximately 0.9 ha along the eastern and northern boundaries of the site to provide landscape mitigation for the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the adjacent grade II listed building, Barrel Sykes Farm. The areas of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Craven Limestone Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) by providing footpath links to the railway tunnel footpath to the north and the National Park highway/footpath and PROW to the east. The layout of the site will be designed to leave gaps through the site to retain views from the National Park to the Grade II listed Barrel Sykes Farm and the undesignated heritage asset of Watershed Mill chimney beyond. The layout of the site will also ensure that views from Town Head Way north towards Barrel Sykes Farm and the Watershed Mill chimney are retained.

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of the adjacent Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area to the west and the grade II listed Barrel Sykes Farm to the north.

·         The existing dry stone boundary walls will be retained. A new dry stone boundary wall will be created east to west across the site to enclose the northern area of green infrastructure in order to maintain the setting of the adjacent heritage asset of the grade II listed Barrel Sykes Farm and to provide a clear definable edge to the development.

·         Development proposals on site will include an improved and enhanced pedestrian link from the site via the adjacent tunnel through the railway embankment.

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         As the site is in a prominent location, development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the northern part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Town Head Way.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG042

NYCC Depot, Kirkgate, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.3 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 10

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (the grade II listed buildings to the south of the site: Victoria Hall, Kirkgate; Bond End, Kirkgate; the grade II* listed building to the south of the site: Friends Meeting House, Kirkgate; and Settle Conservation Area and the Settle Carlisle Railway Conservation Area).

·         Opportunities for further intensification of use within this accessible, town centre site in terms of housing density should be maximised, subject to specific analysis.

·         The site is a town centre site with very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Air quality, noise pollution and/or light pollution measures to be addressed as far as possible in the design and layout of the scheme on the site.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         Development to protect the PROW running through the site.

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the central part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from and Church Street car park and Kirkgate.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2 and INF3 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

LA004

Land to the north of Barrel Sykes, Settle

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.6 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 19

Development Principles:

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         Siting and design of development on the site will conserve the significance of the heritage assets (Settle Carlisle Railway Conservation Area and Watershed Mill, Chimney and Shed Mill Cottages) adjacent to the site and their settings. Proposals will retain the views across this site from the Settle Carlisle Conservation Area towards Watershed Mill;

·         As the site is in a prominent location, development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution. Dwelling heights will be restricted to two storeys to protect views from the Settle Carlisle Railway Conservation Area towards Watershed Mill. Dwellings on the western boundary will be front-facing, but set back from Langcliffe Road to ensure an attractive entrance to this northern part of the town;

·         The existing dry stone boundary walls will be retained. A new dry stone boundary wall will be created east to west across the northern boundary of the site to enclose the field to the north of the site opposite Watershed Mill and to help establish a definitive new urban edge to the town;

·         A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the southern part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Barrel Sykes;

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG060

Northern part of Sowarth Industrial Estate, Settle

Commercial mixed use including employment, retail and leisure uses

Approx. Area: 1.7 ha

Overall A commercially led mixed use regeneration opportunity on the northern part of Sowarth Industrial Estate, Settle offering potential to enhance this part of town. Site to include a mix of employment, retail, and leisure uses, with an element of residential. Regeneration of the site provides opportunities for improvements to environmental quality and enhanced connections in this part of the town. Proposals should take account of the following development principles:

Development Principles:

Use

   Proposals will enhance the role of Sowarth Industrial Estate as a multi-use town centre business park, including a mix of employment, retail and leisure uses that complement and underpin the regeneration of this town centre business park;

•   Existing business, commercial and retail uses and activities are to be retained where possible and enhanced.

Access

•   Principal vehicular accesses to be gained from Kirkgate and Kings Mill Lane.

Flood risk mitigation

•   A Flood Risk Assessment is required and proposals will need to address and mitigate flood risk including making use of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) to mitigate run off and localised flood risk.

Heritage significance

•   A ground work assessment will be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas of potential archaeological significance;

•   Regeneration proposals will take account of the setting and significance of designated heritage assets (Conservation Area and listed buildings) in the immediate surroundings of the regeneration opportunity.

Ground Conditions/Contamination

•   Given the current industrial use on site a ground conditions assessment is required to consider the potential presence of ground contaminants arising from historical uses/activities.

Masterplan

A Masterplan for the regeneration opportunity area, including the incorporation of the development and design principles detailed above, shall be produced in consultation with key stakeholders, and to the satisfaction of, the local planning authority. Development proposals will be expected to accord with the principles of the Masterplan. Regeneration should not occur on a piecemeal basis and a comprehensive approach to redevelopment is expected.

Site Assembly

The opportunity area is in a range of ownerships and assembling the site will influence delivery timescales. Site assembly powers will be considered for use where it is expedient, appropriate and necessary for regeneration to succeed.

Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG064

Land south of Runley Bridge Farm and west of B6480

Employment led mixed use development

Approx. Area: 5 ha (minimum 2.6 ha for B1, B2 and B8 and approx. 1.6 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 19

Development Principles:

·         The site is allocated as employment led mixed use site with an element of residential. A minimum of 2.6 ha shall be for B1, B2 and B8 uses, with approximately 1.6ha of green infrastructure.   Low density residential development will be permitted on the northern part of the site to limit views from the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

·         The site is a greenfield site in a prominent location on the edge of Settle. Development proposals for this site will incorporate biodiversity and landscape mitigation(s).

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         A hydrological investigation and bird survey in relation to impacts on River Ribble (Long Preston Deeps SSSI) is required.

·         Siting and design of high quality development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets near the site (the grade II listed building to the north of the site: Anley House; and Settle-Carlisle Railway Conservation Area) and their settings.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         As the site is in a prominent location, development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution. New proposals will include green infrastructure areas of approximately 1.6 ha which will incorporate a comprehensive landscaping scheme to filter views of the development from the south, east and west.   Semi mature trees will be planted for immediate effect. The residential element in the northern part of the site will be a low density, landscape-led scheme, and dwelling heights will be restricted to two storeys to protect views from the Settle Carlisle Railway Conservation Area and the Yorkshire Dales National Park to the east. The areas of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC).

·         The existing stone boundary walls will be retained.

·         A Landscape Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) is required to assess the likely effects of change on the landscape as a result of the development, specifically on views into and out of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The LVIA will help locate and design the development so that negative landscape effects are avoided, appropriately reduced or offset.

·         A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the southern part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Development proposals must be accompanied by a phasing and delivery schedule to ensure that the proposed employment uses come forward prior to the commencement of any residential development.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from the B6480.

·         Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

POLICY SP7: STRATEGY FOR BENTHAM –TIER 2

Bentham is a secondary location for growth in the plan area, reflecting its role as a key service centre in the north sub area and providing serviced employment land and housing growth to underpin growing prosperity in the town; capitalise on linkages with the rail connected university city of Lancaster, and the tourism potential of the Forest of Bowland AONB. Provision is made for the following development areas to meet housing needs and bolster prosperity and resilience in the town:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx. Yield

HB011

Primary school, east of Robin Lane, west of Lowcroft, High Bentham

1.0

72

HB023

North of Low Bentham Road, High Bentham

1.7

53

HB024

North of Lakeber Drive, High Bentham

0.9

29

HB025

East of Butts Lane, High Bentham

1.0

32

HB026

North of Springfield Crescent and east of Butts Lane, High Bentham

2.6

82

HB038

Land south of Low Bentham Road, High Bentham

C3 0.6

D1 0.3

19

HB044

Land to west of Goodenber Road, High Bentham

1.9

61

HB052

Land to north west of Bank Head Farm and south of Ghyllhead Farm, High Bentham

5.7

118

LB012

Wenning View, Low Bentham Road, Low Bentham

0.6

18

Approx. Total

14.2

484

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

 

Development Principles for Housing Sites identified in Policy SP7

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

HB011

Primary school, east of Robin Lane, west of Lowcroft, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.0ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 72 extra care

Development Principles:

·       The site will provide approximately 72 units of extra care or other specialist housing for older people or people with disabilities to meet identified local needs.

·       Development will have regard to the character and appearance of the area and the characteristics identified in the Assessment of High Bentham for Conservation Area designation (August 2016).

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from Robin Lane and/or Low Croft.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2 and INF3 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

HB023

North of Low Bentham Road, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.7ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 54

Development Principles:

·       A surface water hazard has been identified within the southwest corner of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The site’s prominent location will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area is not adversely affected and will include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from Low Bentham Road (B6480).

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

HB024

North of Lakeber Drive, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.9 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 29

Development Principles:

·        Access to the site will be provided via the adjoining allocated site HB052 unless access can be provided from Lakeber Drive. In either circumstance, development of the site will provide emergency access between Lakeber Drive and the adjoining allocated site, HB052.

·        The public right of way (PROW) through the site will be protected and will not form part of the vehicular access. Measures will be taken to provide a separate route for pedestrians. The PROW will form a framework for the design of on-site public open space to provide enhanced green infrastructure, a connection to open countryside to the north and associated well-being benefits. Development of this site and adjoining allocated sites HB052 and HB044 will take the opportunity to secure additional benefits by creating green infrastructure linkages across all three sites.

·        The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·        The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·        Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

HB025

East of Butts Lane, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.0 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 32

Development Principles:

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified along the eastern site boundary. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The site’s prominent location will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area is not adversely affected and will include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from Butts Lane.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

HB026

North of Springfield Crescent and east of Butts Lane, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 2.6 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 82

Development Principles:

·       A surface water flood risk hazard adjoins the northwest corner of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The site’s prominent location will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area is not adversely affected and will include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from Springfield Crescent.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref

Location

Uses

HB038

Land south of Low Bentham Road, High Bentham

C3 Residential

D1 Education

Approx. Area: 0.9ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 19

Development Principles:

·       The eastern part of the site (0.3ha of land) is safeguarded for the provision of an extension to Bentham Primary School. In the event that the eastern part of the site (0.3ha of land) is not required for such provision, additional residential development will be acceptable in principle.

·       The site’s prominent location will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area is not adversely affected and will include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from the B6480.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport,open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref

Location

Uses

HB052 

Land to north west of Bank Head Farm and south of Ghyllhead Farm, High Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 5.7ha (including approx. 2ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 118

Development Principles:

·       Development will provide access to the adjoining allocated sites HB024 and HB044, unless access can be taken from Lakeber Drive and Barghs Meadow respectively.

·       Public rights of way through the site will be protected.

·       Development of the site will contribute to the improvement and growth of green infrastructure and to achieving net gains in biodiversity. Substantial areas of additional on-site public green space, totalling approximately 2 ha, will be provided in order to mitigate landscape impact, enhance local green infrastructure, achieve a net gain in biodiversity, provide a connection to the open countryside and secure well-being benefits. The areas of green infrastructure will also deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Bowland Fells Special Protection Area (SPA). Such green space will be designed to take account of existing public rights of way that cross the site and to maintain a natural or semi-natural setting to those public rights of way. Development of this site and adjoining allocated sites HB024 and HB044 will take the opportunity to secure additional benefits by creating green infrastructure linkages across all three sites.

·       A surface water flood risk hazard has been identified in the western part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The site’s size and prominent location on the town's northern periphery will be addressed in the design, layout and landscaping of the development to ensure that the character and appearance of the local area is not adversely affected and will include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

·       Access to the site will be gained from Robin Lane and an emergency access will be provided from Lakeber Drive via the adjoining allocated site HB024.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref

Location

Uses

LB012

Wenning View, Low Bentham Road, Low Bentham

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.6ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 18

Development Principles:

·       An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary;

·       Access to the site will be gained from the B6480;

·       The design of proposals shall conserve the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB;

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

POLICY SP8: STRATEGY FOR GLUSBURN/CROSS HILLS – TIER 3

Located between Skipton and Steeton/Silsden in Bradford district, Glusburn/Cross Hills is a substantial centre of population in Craven and is a service centre. There are however physical constraints to growth that influence future growth and direction. A proportionate level of growth is directed towards to Glusburn/Cross Hills which takes account of this role, recognises associated infrastructure constraints and accounts for development opportunities. Provision is made for the following sites to secure growth that underpins the role and function of Glusburn/Cross Hills:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx. Yield

SC085

Land at Malsis, Glusburn

12.7

67

SC037(a)

Land at Ashfield Farm, Skipton Road, Cross Hills

0.8

25

Approx. Total

13.5

92

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

Development Principles for Housing Sites identified in Policy SP8

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SC085

Land at Malsis, Glusburn

Heritage-led conversion and new build development to include an element of C2 institutional and C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 12.7 ha (including approximately 8.6 ha of additional green infrastructure area)

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   67

Development Principles:

·       The primary purpose of the allocation is to conserve the Grade II Listed Buildings on site: Malsis Hall, Lodge to Malsis Hall, Gate Piers and Railings. Heritage-led development through the conversion of Malsis School and the siting and design of development on the site will conserve the significance of heritage assets and their historic landscape settings.

·       Ground work assessment will be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas thought to be of archaeological significance.

·       A Heritage Impact Assessment will be carried out to the satisfaction of Historic England.

·       An Ecological Impact Assessment will be carried out to the satisfaction of Natural England. Any necessary biodiversity mitigation is to be designed into the scheme.

·       The site is within the 2.5km buffer zone of the South Pennine Moors SPA/SAC. To relieve recreational pressure on the SPA/SAC and to protect the parkland setting of the Grade II Listed Building, the site will include extensive areas of green infrastructure of approximately 8.6 ha. A PROW will be created through the site to link to existing PROWs on Malsis Lane to the south and High Corn Mill to the north-east.

·       Trees on the site to be retained under Area Tree Preservation Order reference (2343) 209 2013, to respect the existing setting of the listed building, and the attractive appearance of the site. New build housing will be well screened by planting of native tree species to retain the visual integrity of the parkland as far as possible.

·       A fluvial and surface water flood risk hazard has been identified within the northern part of the site.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·       The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Colne Road.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SC037(a)

Land at Ashfield Farm, Skipton Road, Cross Hills

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.8 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   25

Development Principles:

·       The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·       The site has very good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development will therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·       Access to the site is to be gained from Skipton Road.

·       Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

POLICY SP9: STRATEGY FOR INGLETON –TIER 3

Located to the north of Low and High Bentham and adjacent to the A65, Ingleton is a tourist and employment centre, with a village centre that is struggling for vitality. A proportionate level of growth is directed towards Ingleton to bolster its’ role and function as a local service centre, and provision is made for the following sites to achieve this:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx. Yield

IN006

CDC car park, Backgate, Ingleton

0.2

6

IN010

Caravan Park, north of River Greta, Ingleton

0.4

13

IN028

Between Ingleborough Park Drive and Low Demesne, Ingleton.

0.9

29

IN029

East of New Village and south of Low Demense, Ingleton.

1.2

36

IN049

Former playing fields, Ingleton Middle School, Ingleton.

0.7

21

Total

 

3.4

105

Employment Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Net Dev Area (Ha)

Uses

IN022 and

IN035

Land adjacent to southern edge of industrial estate, off New Road and west of Tatterthorn Lane (Extensions to existing employment area)

2.9

B1, B2 and B8

Total

 

2.9

 

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

Development Principles for Housing and Employment Sites identified in Policy SP9

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN006

CDC carpark, Backgate, Ingleton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.2ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 6

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (the grade II listed building to the west of the site: Panwell Cottage, Backgate, and Ingleton Conservation Area).

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Backgate.

·         Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN010

Caravan Park, north of River Greta, Ingleton

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.4ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 13

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (the grade II listed bridges to the south and north of the site: Ingleton Viaduct and Bridge to the north east of Broadwood Cottage, Bridge End respectively; and Ingleton Conservation Area).

·         A fluvial flood risk hazard has been identified within the western part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution;

·         Access to the site is to be gained from the B6255;

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN028

Between Ingleborough Park Drive and Low Demesne, Ingleton.

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.9ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 29

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets near and adjacent to the site and their settings (the grade II listed buildings to the north-west and west of the site: Police Station, High Street and Panwell Cottage, Back Gate respectively; and Ingleton Conservation Area).

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         The site is in a prominent location and in close proximity to the National Park boundary. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Ingleborough Park Drive.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN029

East of New Village and south of Low Demense, Ingleton.

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.2ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 36

Development Principles:

·         Development proposals are required to maintain the existing PROW or provide an alternative PROW connection through the site to connect with the PROW network to the south of the site in the open countryside and shall be designed to have a natural or semi-natural setting to deliver recreational walking opportunities aimed at relieving pressure on the Ingleborough Complex Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and Bowland Fells Special Protection Area (SPA).

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancement effects are implemented.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained Low Demesne.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN049

Former playing fields, Ingleton Middle School, Ingleton.

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.7 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   21

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets near the site and their settings (the grade II listed building to the west of the site: The Laurels, Laundry Lane).

·         A surface water hazard has been identified to the southern and western parts of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Laundry Lane.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

IN022 and IN035

Land adjacent to southern edge of industrial estate, off New Road and west of Tatterthorn Lane. (Extensions to existing employment area)

B1, B2 & B8

Approx. Area: 2.9 ha

Development Principles:

·         The sites are allocated as an extension to the existing industrial estate to the south of New Road, Ingleton.

·         A surface water hazard has been identified within the eastern and western parts of site IN035 and a small area adjacent to the western boundary of site IN022.   Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         Development proposals will be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.   This is particularly important in terms of mitigating impact on public viewpoints from Tatterthorn Lane.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Tatterthorn Lane and from the A65 via the existing industrial estate road.

·         Development proposals on this site must accord with all relevant policies of the local plan.

 

POLICY SP10: STRATEGY FOR GARGRAVE –TIER 3

Located astride the A65 and benefitting from rail connections with Skipton, Settle, Lancaster and beyond, Gargrave provides employment opportunities and has an active community set within a high quality built environment. A neighbourhood plan is in preparation. A proportionate level of growth is directed towards Gargrave to underpin and bolster its’ role and function as a local service centre as follows:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area(Ha)

Approx. Yield

 

GA004

Neville House, Neville Crescent, Gargrave

0.4

14

GA009

Land off Eshton Road, north of Canal, Gargrave

3.8

60

GA031

Land to the west of Walton Close, Gargrave

1.4

44

Total

 

5.6

118

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

Development Principles for Housing Sites identified in Policy SP10

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

GA004

Neville House, Neville Crescent, Gargrave

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.4 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   14

Development Principles:

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Ground work assessment will be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas thought to be of archaeological significance.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from the existing access onto Neville Crescent.

·        Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

GA009

Land off Eshton Road, north of Canal, Gargrave

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 3.8 ha (including approx. 1.2 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 60 extra care

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on the site and their settings (the grade II listed bridge to the east of the site: Ray Bridge No. 173, Leeds and Liverpool Canal; and Gargrave Conservation Area).

·         Development proposals for this site will incorporate an area of green infrastructure measuring approximately 1.2 ha to the south and east of the site to provide a landscape buffer to the Yorkshire Dales National Park and improve access to the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, including for people with limited mobility.

·         A fluvial flood risk hazard has been identified within the southern part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible;

·         There is a requirement for a Biodiversity Appraisal to assess the existing ecological conditions on the site. This is to be accompanied by a standardised Biodiversity Mitigation Plan (BMP) which must cover matters of both habitat and protected species, with the aim that negative effects on biodiversity are avoided or suitably offset, and enhancements effects are implemented;

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution;

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Eshton Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

  

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

GA031

Land to the west of Walton Close, Gargrave

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.4 ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   44

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets near the site and their settings (the scheduled ancient monument to the west of the site: Moated site west of Paget Hall; the grade II listed building to the north-west of the site: Milton House, Marton Road; and Gargrave Conservation Area).

·         Proposals for development on this site will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution;

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Marton Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

POLICY SP11: STRATEGY FOR TIER 4A AND 4B VILLAGES WITH BASIC SERVICES AND BISECTED VILLAGES WITH BASIC SERVICES

Tier 4 settlements will receive a limited amount of growth that underpins their role and function as settlements with basic services and to ensure ongoing sustainability. Villages with basic services and/or tourism function which are bisected by the National Park boundary also receive an appropriate level of growth on the following sites:

Housing Sites:

Site Ref

Location

Approx. Area (Ha)

Approx. Yield

BU012

Richard Thornton’s CE Primary School, Burton in Lonsdale

0.7

15

BR016

Land to west of Gilders, Langholme Skipton Road, Low Bradley.

0.8

25

SG014

Land at Lord’s Close, Giggleswick

1.1

35

 

Mixed Use Housing and Employment Site

Site Ref

Location

Net Dev Area (Ha)

Approx. Yield

CN006

Station Works, north of Cononley Lane, Cononley

2.2

C3 – 94

B1 – 0.15 ha

Approx. Total

4.8

169

Proposals for development on the sites identified above will be supported subject to compliance with the following Development Principles for each site.

Development Principles for Housing and Mixed Use Sites identified in Policy SP11

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

BU012

Richard Thornton’s CE Primary School, Burton in Lonsdale

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: Approx. Area: 0.7 ha (including approximately 0.3 ha of additional green infrastructure)

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   15

Development Principles:

·         Conversion of the school and siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (Burton-in-Lonsdale Conservation Area, Grade II Listed Burton Endowed First School, Schoolmasters House, garden wall and gatepiers, Scheduled Ancient Monument Castle Hill Motte and Bailey castle, Tranquil Vale).

·         Any development proposal should include an Arboricultural survey to ascertain the exact location, species and condition of all trees on site. All healthy trees should be retained and work undertaken to maintain them in a healthy condition.

·         Front terraces and all stone boundary walls should be retained as far as possible and restored.

·         New build development is restricted to land at the rear (West) of the site.

·         Approximately 0.3ha of green infrastructure shall be provided on the site to protect the setting of the Grade II Listed Building.

·         Ground work assessment may be required as part of the on-site works to investigate areas thought to be of archaeological significance.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from the A687.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

BR016

Land to west of Gilders, Langholme, Skipton Road, Low Bradley.

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 0.8ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 25

Development Principles:

·         Siting and design of development on the site to conserve the setting of the Bradley Conservation Area.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         The existing dry stone boundary walls will be retained. New dry stone boundary walls will be created along the northern and western boundaries of the site to help establish a definitive new urban edge to the village.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Skipton Road.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

SG014

Land at Lords Close, Giggleswick.

C3 Residential

Approx. Area: 1.1ha

Approx. Number of Dwellings: 35

Development Principles:

·         The site is a village centre site with good accessibility to key services and public transport. Proposals for development should therefore maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         A fluvial flood risk hazard has been identified along the eastern boundary of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         The site is currently in use a playing field and any development proposals on this site must accord with the requirements of Policy INF3, criterion (d).

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Lord’s Close.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

 

Site Ref.

Location

Uses

CN006

Station Works, north of Cononley Lane, Cononley

C3 Residential and B1 uses

Approx. Area: 2.2 ha (including approx. 0.15ha for B1 Use)

Approx. Number of Dwellings:   94

Development Principles:

·         The site is promoted as partly ‘employment led’ to ensure the delivery of the socio-economic objectives of the plan.

·         Conversion of the Mill and siting and design of development on the site to conserve the significance of heritage assets on and adjacent to the site and their settings (Undesignated heritage asset of Cononley Mill , Mill House and Mill Chimney and Cononley Conservation Area).

·         An assessment of the site’s archaeological interest will be required with appropriate mitigation incorporated into development proposals where necessary.

·         A fluvial flood risk hazard has been identified within the north-eastern part of the site. Development proposals must therefore be supported by a Flood Risk Assessment and drainage strategy which has informed the design, layout and landscaping of the site. Proposals will incorporate Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), where possible.

·         The site is in a prominent location. Development proposals should be carefully and sensitively designed to minimise visual impact on the character and appearance of the area, and include measures to minimise impacts on air quality, noise and light pollution.

·         The site has very good accessibility to key services and public transport; proposals for development shall maximise the opportunities for future occupiers to walk or cycle to most key services rather than using a private vehicle.

·         Access to the site is to be gained from Cononley Lane.

·         Development proposals for this site must accord with local plan policies H2, INF3 and INF6 (which set out requirements for contributions towards affordable housing, education provision and sport, open space and recreation facilities) and all other relevant local plan policies.

Infrastructure requirements and delivery

4.57    The delivery of new or improved infrastructure and services to support new development in a timely manner will be an important element in ensuring the appropriate and sustainable delivery of new growth in Craven. It is important to ensure that certain infrastructure is provided before development begins, to safeguard against adverse impacts that may arise. To facilitate this, it is important that infrastructure needs are understood, and costed early on as part of the plan making process.

4.58    Planning for infrastructure provision has been, and continues to be, an ongoing process through the development of an Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) which sits alongside the Local Plan, as part of the evidence base. The IDP has been produced in collaboration with infrastructure providers and examines provision of the following broad types of infrastructure:

  • Physical: transport, energy, water and drainage, waste
  • Social: education, health care, leisure and recreation, community and social and emergency services
  • Green: open space

4.59    The IDP is a living document and will be updated regularly, providing an overview of the infrastructure required to support new development. It also provides an overview of who is responsible for delivery, and a broad indication of costs and funding mechanisms. Moreover, the IDP will act as a focus for delivery, but should not be seen as a detailed investment programme.

Funding Infrastructure and Services

4.60    Planned infrastructure provision will be funded through a number of sources.   Mainstream funding sources, such as the District and County Council’s capital programmes, service providers’ investment programmes, and government grants, will continue to fund the bulk of infrastructure spending required to deliver the planned growth. However, other initiatives such as planning obligations and the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) can also provide a substantial resource for locally-determined priorities and other proposals that come forward.

Other proposals

4.61    In addition to the planned growth set out in the plan, it is likely that other proposals will come forward that have infrastructure requirements arising, that have not been accounted for. The Council will seek contributions from developers when considering such proposals to contribute towards a range of infrastructure arising in line with the provisions of Policy INF1: Planning Obligations. Policy SP12 makes provision for this and sets out a policy requirement for infrastructure provision, and mechanisms available for delivery, provided as part of additional proposals.

4.62    As part of the planning for infrastructure provision, the Council needs to consider the role that developers can play in helping to provide the physical, social and green infrastructure that is required and is arising from new growth.   When planning permission is granted for new development, the Council will seek contributions from developers towards a range of infrastructure in line with the provisions of Policy INF1: Planning Obligations.

 

POLICY SP12: INFRASTRUCTURE, STRATEGY AND DEVELOPMENT DELIVERY 

Planned Infrastructure

The infrastructure required arising from the delivery of the planned growth in the local plan is set out in the Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) which is part of the evidence base of the local plan.  

Decisions on the timing of infrastructure delivery identified in the IDP are kept under review but will be tied to the timing of growth delivery over the plan period. The Council will work to mitigate and minimise adverse impacts that may arise from the delivery of the local plan in terms of infrastructure provision.

Development proposals are expected to either provide, or enable the provision of, infrastructure which is directly related to, or made necessary by that development. Where infrastructure cannot be provided directly, the Council will seek developer contributions through planning obligations in accordance with Policy INF1 or Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) if and when a CIL charge has been adopted under the relevant Regulations.

The Council expects infrastructure improvements and investments to be delivered by development, or through developer contributions secured by legal agreement or CIL. Delivery of infrastructure should be timely and to an adoptable standard, as specified by the relevant responsible statutory undertaker, organisation or authority.

Proposals for the necessary maintenance, upgrading and expansion of utilities infrastructure will be supported in principle.

SECTION 5: ENVIRONMENT

COUNTRYSIDE AND LANDSCAPE

5.1       Craven's countryside – its land and scenery – and the quality of its landscapes are the area's defining feature and the jewel in its crown. People's appreciation and enjoyment of Craven, and the area's vitality and success, depend, in many ways, on its outstanding countryside and landscape. This policy is therefore of central importance to the Craven Local Plan.

5.2       Local landscapes have been influenced and defined by natural and human activity, including a long tradition of farming and small-scale urban development. Because human and natural activity evolves over time, landscape character will also change over time. Positive and beneficial management of that change, including restoration and protection where necessary, is essential to maintaining the quality, distinctiveness and vitality of the local environment.

Landscape Character

5.3       Within Craven there are areas of different landscape character. Many of these are rural and agricultural, but there are urban environments, too, including the settings of our historic villages and market towns. Landscape appraisal helps to describe the important characteristics of different areas of landscape (called landscape characterisation), grouping areas according to shared features. This helps to make recommendations for future conservation and management. The most up to date landscape appraisal for Craven at the time will be an important tool in drawing-up and determining proposals for new development.

5.4       Currently, the Craven Landscape Appraisal (2002) and the Forest of Bowland Landscape Character Assessment (2009) are the relevant Landscape Character Appraisals used in decision making. These appraisals may be updated during the plan period in which case successor documents will used in decision making.

5.5       Other sources of information and guidance on landscape management include Natural England‘s work on National Character Areas. Character areas have been profiled into landscapes which share similar characteristics and do not follow administrative boundaries. Each profile establishes guidance which can be important to decision making. In Craven the following five areas have been identified:

  • 21 Yorkshire Dales
  • 33 Bowland Fringe and Pendle Hill
  • 34 Bowland Fells
  • 35 Lancashire Valleys
  • 36 Southern Pennines

5.6       The North Yorkshire and York Landscape Character Assessment (2011) tells us how historic processes have contributed to landscapes over time. This kind of information and guidance is helpful in the conservation of features that give places their unique character, in identifying opportunities for enhancement and positive change, and in providing evidence to support local action.

Designated Landscapes

5.7       Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and National Parks are national landscape designations afforded the highest protection for their landscape and scenic quality. The protection of these areas relates not only to the land within them, but also to their settings.

5.8       The Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) covers around a third of the Craven plan area. Designated in 1964, the AONB is recognised for its exceptional landscape value and special qualities including its heather moorland, blanket bog and rare birds and is also important for its upland hay meadows, ancient semi-natural woodlands and tranquillity. The landscape setting of the Yorkshire Dales National Park is also an important influence within the plan area, stretching along most of the eastern boundary.

5.9       The Council has a legal duty[31] to work with the AONB and national park management bodies in the conservation and enhancement of the natural beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB and the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The Council will also work with these bodies in achieving their other aims. Where development proposals could affect either of these designations, the Council and developers will need to consider the objectives of the management plans for these locations.

5.10    Craven has two Registered Historic Parks and Gardens (Broughton Hall and Gledstone Hall). These Parks and Gardens are designated under the ‘Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England.’ Proposals which affect these heritage assets will be considered under Policy ENV2 (Heritage).

Partnership Working

5.11    The Council makes a positive commitment towards implementing the Rights of Way Improvement Plan in seeking to deliver benefits to general health including obesity. The Council will work with the Local Access Forums of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the North Yorkshire Local Access Forum.

Dark Skies

5.12    Craven is a sparse rural area where large gaps exist between settlements, and there are large expanses of land with relatively little artificial light helping to keep the sky dark at night. Light in the wrong place (where it is not intended or wanted), or at the wrong time, is a form of pollution as it spoils the environment and can impact on health and wellbeing of people, the migration and feeding behaviour of bird and other animal species (including in particular nocturnal species such as owls and bats), and the opportunity to view constellations. Light pollution can be caused through glare, trespass, scenic intrusion or sky glow all resulting in different effects.

5.13    Developers should have regard to the Forest of Bowland AONB Obtrusive Lighting Position Statement which will be used in decision making, this sets the position that within the AONB or in locations affecting its boundaries, exterior lighting proposed as part of any new development should be the minimum required and only appropriate to its purpose, so as to protect the area's natural surroundings and intrinsic darkness.

5.14    However, it is also important outside these designated areas, where there are significant areas of remote open countryside that also have intrinsically dark skies, that these locations are not adversely affected by lighting arising from new development proposals. Therefore   other non-designated areas of remote open countryside, and areas identified as being sensitive to light pollution within the relevant landscape character appraisal in the local plan area are categorised as being within Environmental Zone E1 under the ILP Guidance (guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Lighting) and shall be subject to the requirements for light levels in that document (or successor documents) unless otherwise agreed with the Local Authority.’

5.15    Guidance on lighting is contained within the Institute of Lighting Professionals Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light GN01:2011.

5.16    Where significant lighting is proposed for example through the installation of floodlights, developers will be required to submit a lighting assessment and strategy demonstrating how impacts will be minimised and appropriate mitigation incorporated.

POLICY ENV1: COUNTRYSIDE AND LANDSCAPE

Sustainable growth will ensure that the quality of Craven’s countryside and landscape is conserved for future generations to enjoy; and that opportunities to restore and enhance the landscape are taken wherever possible. To achieve this, the Council will:

a)     Expect new development proposals, in those areas not subject to national landscape designations, to respect, safeguard, and wherever possible, restore or enhance the landscape character of the area. Proposals should have regard to the relevant Landscape Character Appraisal/Assessment, and specifically to the different landscape character types that are present in the plan area. Regard should also be had to the relevant profiled Natural England Character Areas (listed at para 5.5) and the North Yorkshire and York Landscape Characterisation Project (2011) (or successor documents). Proposals will show how they respond to the particular character area and type they are located within.

b)     Support proposals that secure the restoration of degraded landscapes, in ways that also help to achieve biodiversity and heritage objectives.

c)     Support proposals which secure the preservation and appropriate restoration or enhancement of natural and historic man-made features.

d)     In determining proposals which affect the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) and its setting or the setting of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, the Council will give great weight to conservation of their special qualities, including their landscape, scenic beauty and intrinsically dark landscapes (for the enjoyment and experience of dark skies). In addition, proposals will be considered on a needs basis, should be in scale with, and have respect for their surroundings and be in line with the AONB or National Park Management Plan objectives.

e)     Support proposals that secure the restoration, preservation and where possible enhancement of the public rights of way network, including the improvement of existing public rights of way, the creation of new public rights of way and the promotion of disabled access to the countryside.

f)      Exterior lighting proposed as part of any new development should be the minimum required and only appropriate to its purpose, so as to protect the area’s natural surroundings and intrinsic darkness. Proposals for exterior lights shall demonstrate there is no significant adverse effect, individually or cumulatively, on; the character of the area; the visibility of the night sky; biodiversity (including bats and light sensitive species); and residents, pedestrians or drivers.

g)     Enable settlements to grow in ways that respect their form, distribution and landscape setting. Important considerations will include; allowing the countryside to permeate built-up areas; maintaining gaps between settlements in order to preserve their separate identities; and preserving and creating connections between built-up areas and the countryside, including existing and new public rights of way.

HERITAGE

5.17    Heritage is what we’ve inherited from the past and place special value upon. It’s a broad term and can be applied to a wide range of things from landscapes and buildings to customs and knowledge. As well as being a record of our development through history, it creates local identity, is weaved into our modern way of life and can be an inspiration for positive change into the future. Heritage is irreplaceable and heritage conservation is therefore essential to the achievement of sustainable development.

5.18    Craven’s heritage includes a rich historic environment, which underpins the area’s character, appeal and success. Within this historic environment, a number of heritage assets have been designated in recognition of their special significance[32]. The NPPF makes it clear that great weight should be given to the conservation of these assets when considering development proposals:

  • Listed buildings—of which there are 888 within the plan area
  • Scheduled ancient monuments—31 in the plan area
  • Registered parks and gardens— 2 in the plan area
  • Conservation areas—29 in the plan area

5.19    However, the designated heritage assets represent only a fraction of the heritage resource of Craven. Indeed, it is the wealth of non-designated elements which help to give Craven’s towns, villages and countryside their distinct identity. These non-designated heritage assets are a vital part of the social and cultural identity of the District helping to provide distinctiveness, meaning and quality to the places in which its communities live, providing a sense of continuity and a source of identity and are valued by local people as part of the familiar and cherished local scene. Many non-designated assets are known about and already identified, but others may be undiscovered or unrecognised, or their existence may only be suspected—archaeological remains are a good example[33].

5.20    This plan needs to maintain and manage change to these heritage assets in a way which sustains and, where appropriate, enhances their significance. This can be achieved through enabling positive change that follows principles of good conservation and design; and by ensuring that any development proposal affecting a heritage asset is based on knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the asset’s significance.   In cases where archaeological significance is not fully understood, or where archaeological potential has been identified, developers will need to provide information to support their proposals in the form of archaeological field evaluations.

5.21    Change to heritage assets can also have an impact on biodiversity. Canal and river-side buildings, bridges and barns, in particular, provide valuable roosting and nesting sites for protected species – such as barn owls, bats, swallows, swifts and house martins – and support the use of canal and river corridors as green infrastructure.   Conserving heritage assets in a manner which sustains their significance and promotes biodiversity will be supported.

5.22    In order to sustain the long-term future of a heritage asset, it may be necessary for it to be put to a use for which it was not originally designed. This can help reduce the threat of neglect and decay and the number of assets being identified as being at risk[34]. However, this should always be to the optimum viable use for that asset (i.e. the one that will cause least harm to its significance).

5.23    Any harm to or loss of a heritage asset - through destruction, alteration or development within its setting – will require clear and convincing justification. Decisions will need to be based on informed, balanced judgements and the merits of each case. Proposals which would result in harm to the significance of a designated heritage asset will be weighed against the public benefits of that proposal. Where substantial harm or total loss is likely to occur, it would have to be demonstrated that the harm is necessary to achieve substantial public benefits or:

  • the nature of the heritage asset prevents all reasonable uses of the site; and 
  • no viable use of the heritage asset itself can be found in the medium term through appropriate marketing that will enable its conservation; and 
  • conservation by grant-funding or some form of charitable or public ownership is demonstrably not possible; and
  • the harm or loss is outweighed by the benefit of bringing the site back into use.

Where any heritage assets or parts of heritage assets are likely to be lost, the assets should be properly surveyed and recorded beforehand. Requiring such records to be made, kept safe and open to the public is therefore an important element of heritage conservation.

5.24    Local communities and amenity groups have an important role to play in helping to identify those non-designated heritage assets in their area which they consider important to the character of their area. The impact of a development upon such assets will be taken into account in determining the appropriateness of any proposals. Neighbourhood plans can help to reveal the significance of heritage assets and especially non-designated assets. Communities can use their plans to identify buildings and places which are appreciated locally for their historic, cultural or townscape value—ensuring that the significance of those buildings and places can be properly and fully appreciated by all.

POLICY ENV2: HERITAGE

Craven’s historic environment will be conserved and, where appropriate, enhanced and its potential to contribute towards the economic regeneration, tourism and education of the area fully exploited. This will be achieved through:-

a) Paying particular attention to the conservation of those elements which contribute most to the District’s distinctive character and sense of place. These include:-

i)      The legacy of mills, chimneys, and terraced housing associated with the textile industry;

ii)    The bridges and structures associated with the Settle-Carlisle Railway;

iii)    The buildings, bridges, locks and other and structures associated with the Leeds-Liverpool Canal and Thanet Canal;

iv)    The historic market towns of Skipton and Settle;

v)    Skipton Castle, the castle grounds and the castle’s extensive  landscape setting, including the medieval hunting park, Skipton Woods and Civil War Battery;

vi) The legacy of traditional barns and other buildings and structures associated with the farming industry and historic land estates.

b) Ensuring that proposals affecting a designated heritage asset (or an archaeological site of national importance) conserve those elements which contribute to its significance. The more important the asset, the greater the weight that will be given to its conservation. Harm to such elements will be permitted only where this is outweighed by the public benefits of the proposal. Substantial harm to the significance of a designated heritage asset (or an archaeological site of national importance) will be permitted only in exceptional circumstances where it can be demonstrated that there are substantial public benefits that outweigh that harm or loss.

c) Supporting proposals that would preserve or enhance the character or appearance of a Conservation Area, especially those elements which have been identified in a Conservation Area Appraisal as making a positive contribution to its significance.

d) Ensuring that proposals affecting an archaeological site of less than national importance conserve those elements which contribute to its significance in line with the importance of the remains. In those cases where development affecting such sites is acceptable in principle, mitigation of damage will be ensured through preservation of the remains in situ as a preferred solution. When in situ preservation is not justified, the developer will be required to make adequate provision for excavation and recording before or during development.

e) Supporting proposals which conserve Craven’s non-designated heritage assets. Developments which would remove, harm or undermine the significance of such assets, or their contribution to the character of a place will only be permitted where the benefits of the development would outweigh the harm having regard to the scale of the harm and the significance of the heritage asset.

f) Supporting proposals which will help to secure a sustainable future for Craven’s heritage assets, especially those identified as being at greatest risk of loss or decay.

GOOD DESIGN

5.25    Good design may be more difficult to define than it is to recognise, but usually results in buildings and in places that look and feel better, function better and contribute more to the achievement of sustainable development. This means that well-designed environments are often more enjoyable, healthier, easier to move around, less conducive to crime and anti-social behaviour, and more durable and adaptable to change.

5.26    Craven‘s attractive environment, which includes historic market towns, villages and landscapes of individual character and distinctiveness, is the perfect inspiration for good design in all aspects of future growth. It is important to highlight the importance of receiving good design proposals where the special qualities or setting of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and Forest of Bowland AONB would be affected. Designers and their clients should make the most of this opportunity to achieve good design in all of their projects—whatever the scale or location.

5.27    The Council promotes community involvement in new development proposals and members of the community may wish to identify important characteristics of their local environment, including locally valued elements of the built and natural environment to be incorporated into a development scheme e.g. through public realm improvements or art installations. Such elements form part of the local context and need to be understood and appreciated when designs are being drawn up. Community participation in design—such as in the design of neighbourhood open space—can help to ensure that designs work well for end-users.

5.28    Communities also have the option of setting out their own policies, in support of good design, within a Neighbourhood Plan. National guidance on good design is available from the government, its advisors and agencies. A number of recognised guidance documents establish principles that help to achieve good design, for example Building for Life.  

5.29    Discussions about good design, between designers, their clients and the council, can be very helpful and are always encouraged. The best time for this is at the early stage of a project, so that things agreed during the discussion can form the basis of the final design without any great difficulty or delay.

5.30    Light pollution can be a form of nuisance, impacting on health and wellbeing as well as natural habitats and species. When considering lighting in new development, developers and decision makers should have regard to guidance prepared by the Institute of Lighting Professionals Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light GN01:2011 (or its successor document).

5.31    People’s well-being and quality of life can be greatly affected by crime, the fear of crime and road safety. In the case of most planning applications, community safety issues will need to be addressed in terms of the layout and design of the development. Well-conceived and designed developments can help to prevent damage to community cohesion and prevent increased opportunities for criminal activity both of which can be perceived as ‘threatening’ by the people who use them. However, there may be rare occasions where evidence is clear that a proposed development is intrinsically likely to increase crime or disorder’s effect upon the community. In such circumstances, where unacceptable community safety impacts cannot be ‘designed out’, planning permission should be refused. Generally, negotiation with applicants is encouraged to ensure their proposals maximise security for their users and for the community in general.

5.32    Supplementary Planning Documents may be brought forward where necessary to aid developers and decision makers in bringing forward new development proposals founded on good design principles.

5.33    To help with the reading of the following policy on good design, some terms used in the policy are explained below:

Context

5.34    Context is local circumstances, which form the background to a design idea and help the design make sense in its surroundings.

Distinctiveness

5.35    The positive features that help to contribute towards creating a ‘sense of place,’ and individual identity.  

Permeable

5.36    Permeable developments have ways through them, which allow people to walk and move freely in an enjoyable and easy way.

Legible, Sense of Place

5.37    Legible developments with a sense of place are clear enough to read, so you can tell where you are and where things are around you.

Backcloths and Landmarks

5.38    The majority of buildings provide a backcloth for occasional landmark buildings – it's important to have both in the right proportions and locations.

Public Realm

5.39    The public realm is where we can wander without entering any strictly private space – it adds to the look, feel and enjoyment of places.

Residential Amenity

5.40      Residential amenity concerns the benefit enjoyed by the external space around the private home. This benefit depends on the quality of space, location, size, orientation, accessibility, enclosure, noise and smell.

POLICY ENV3: GOOD DESIGN

Good design will help to ensure that growth in Craven results in positive change, which benefits the local economy, environment and quality of life, including health and wellbeing. This will be achieved by following the general design principles set out in broad terms below:

Context

a) Development should respond to the context and proposals should be based on a proper understanding and appreciation of environmental features, including both natural and built elements such as landscape, topography, vegetation, open space, microclimate, tranquillity, light and darkness;

b) Designs should respect the form of existing and surrounding buildings including density, scale, height, massing and use of high quality materials which should be locally sourced wherever possible;

c) Development should be legible and create a sense of place by maintaining, enhancing and creating good townscapes with beneficial elements like views, vistas, enclosures, focal points, public art, backcloths and landmarks;

d) Development should seek to enhance local distinctiveness through maintaining good aspects of the local environment, improving poorer aspects and adding new aspects that benefit the local environment;

e) Development should protect the amenity of existing residents and business occupiers as well as create acceptable amenity conditions for future occupiers;

f) Development proposals should be able to demonstrate that they will secure a good standard of amenity for all existing and future occupants of land and buildings;

Infrastructure

g) Designs should anticipate the need for external storage space within new developments, including space for the storage and collection of non-recyclable and recyclable waste;

h) Necessary services and infrastructure should be able to be accommodated without causing harm to retained features, or result in visual clutter;

Ensuring Development is Accessible

i) Reasonable provision should be made to ensure that buildings and spaces are accessible and usable and that individuals, regardless of their age, gender or disability are able to gain access to buildings and to gain access within buildings and use their facilities, both as visitors and as people who live and work in them;

j) Development should be permeable and should make getting around easier—especially for pedestrians, cyclists and people with disabilities— by improving existing routes, adding new ones and creating connections to enhance the local network;

k) Access roads should be designed as streets—they should form part of the public realm, be people-friendly, safe and active, allow natural surveillance and help to create a network of easy-to-use routes;

l) Schemes should seek to incorporate secure storage for bicycles to encourage sustainable modes of travel;

Art And Culture

m) Development should promote socialising, recreation, art, health and wellbeing, by maintaining and improving existing public spaces and by creating new public spaces, such as parks, squares and other areas of public realm;

n) The provision of public art will be encouraged from the outset for all major development schemes;

Designing Out Crime

o) The design of all new developments will be required to promote safe living environments, reduce opportunities for crime and the fear of crime, disorder and anti-social behaviour.

Shop Fronts/Advertisements

p) Traditional shop fronts which make a valuable contribution to the distinctive character of their local area should be, wherever practicable, refurbished and retained in development proposals;

q) New/alterations to shop fronts will only be permitted if the design is consistent with the character and scale of the existing building, if it is of high quality and uses materials that are deemed acceptable to the area. The shop fascia must be designed in scale, in its depth and width, with the façade and the street scene of which it forms part;

r) Proposals for advertisements will be assessed having regard to issues of highway/transport safety and the characteristics of the locality, including features of scenic, historic, architectural, cultural or other special interest;

Sustainable Design and Construction

s) To require non-residential developments of 1,000 or more square metres where feasible to meet at least the BREEAM standard ‘Very Good’ for non-residential buildings requirement. Non-residential development should seek to achieve BREEAM ‘Very Good’ or better unless it has been demonstrated through an economic viability assessment that it is not viable to do so;

t) Sustainability should be designed in, so that development takes all reasonable opportunities to reduce energy use, water use and carbon emissions and to minimise waste, ensure future resilience to a changing climate and wherever possible to generate power through solar or other means, in accordance with Building Regulations. This should include residential, industrial and commercial developments.

BIODIVERSITY

5.41    Biodiversity means biological diversity, or the number and variety of plants and animals living in a specific area. Whilst words like nature, wildlife and habitat may be more common, biodiversity is a good all-encompassing term. In order to achieve sustainable development, this plan needs to ensure that Craven's growth includes growth in biodiversity. This means preserving the biodiversity we have and securing enhanced biodiversity for the future.

5.42    Craven‘s biodiversity is sensitive to change, but can continue to flourish and adapt, if given the necessary opportunities and support. Well-managed change can not only avoid the destruction and fragmentation of habitats and species, but can help them to recover and expand. In order to achieve this, it‘s important to safeguard habitats and species protected by law under the following national and international designations:

  • Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)
  • Special Protection Areas (SPA)
  • Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI);

and habitats and species identified under the following local designations:

  • Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINC),
  • Ancient woodland/pasture or individual veteran trees.

5.43    The above internationally, nationally and locally designated sites are mapped on the Policies Map. However, safeguarding these (relatively few) designated sites, which are often isolated pockets of rich biodiversity, will not be sufficient to preserve and enhance biodiversity overall. In order to do this, we need to make the best of all opportunities, wherever they arise, to safeguard native habitats and species and to help their recovery, expansion, adaptation to climate change and movement across the plan area. The NPPF states that the planning system should minimise impacts on biodiversity and provide net gains in biodiversity where possible. As such green infrastructure routes/areas have been incorporated into greenfield site allocations where possible and these are identified under Policy ENV4 to provide opportunities for a net gain in biodiversity to be achieved and maintained on these sites. Future reviews of the Local Plan will include the safeguarding of Local Geodiversity Sites which, at present, are at candidate stage and not formally designated. Geological features in the district are currently safeguarded where they form part of internationally designated SSSI.

5.44    The vast majority of the plan area lies within 7km of at least one internationally designated site. These include the North Pennine Moors SPA and SAC, the South Pennine Moors Phase 2 SPA and SAC, the Ingleborough Complex SAC, the Craven Limestone Complex SAC and the Bowland Fells SPA. As identified in the Habitats Regulation Assessment – Appropriate Assessment Report, the close proximity of SPAs and SACs means that the designated sites can be vulnerable to recreational pressures emanating from the potential future occupants of new residential development. Other forms of development, such as intensive leisure or tourism proposals may also give rise to additional recreational pressure. Where new developments are within 2.5km of designated sites they (the SPA and/or SAC) can be particularly vulnerable to disturbance, and the development site itself could affect the foraging habitat for qualifying bird species.

5.45    Development proposals likely to have a significant effect on a European site, when considered alone and in combination with other plans and projects, will therefore need to be subject to an Appropriate Assessment. Where the Appropriate Assessment cannot rule out adverse impacts on a site’s integrity (having considered any suitable mitigation), and there are no alternative solutions, permission will be refused unless there are imperative reasons of overriding public interest (the ‘IROPI test’)[35]. In the event that a development proposal passes the IROPI test, compensatory measures must still be provided, for instance the re-creation of a comparable habitat.

5.46    The national and local Biodiversity Action Plans are good sources of information and help to identify threats and opportunities relating to the preservation and enhancement of biodiversity. In addition, Natural England has defined National Character Areas based on unique combinations of landscape, biodiversity, geodiversity and cultural and economic activity. Information like this shows that there are good opportunities, locally, for the preservation and enhancement of biodiversity, including specific assets like native woodland, hedgerows, agricultural habitats, semi natural hay meadow, blanket bog, moorland, ponds and other water bodies.

5.47    Would-be developers should assess, early on, the likely effect of their proposals on biodiversity within the site, on wider ecological networks and on biodiversity beyond the site, so that designs can be drawn up to achieve improvements in biodiversity and stronger ecological networks. Part of this assessment should be how people may access, use and impact upon any biodiversity or geodiversity features within the development site, and any designated biodiversity sites nearby. Attention should be paid to all aspects of biodiversity, but especially to priority habitats and species identified in the national and local Biodiversity Action Plans. Local Nature Partnerships can provide developers with useful advice and access to local organisations, businesses and individuals who are working towards improving the local natural environment, as a way of linking development proposals in with existing biodiversity improvement projects in the locality.

5.48    Development proposals which are likely to adversely affect international designations will be subject to a specific IROPI test under (Article 6 (4) of the EU Directive on the Conservation of Habitats and of Wild Flora and Fauna (The Habitats Directive). To pass the IROPI test development proposals must demonstrate that mitigation measures have been explored and that residual effects remain and   that when mitigation measures have been exhausted ,alternative solutions have been be sought. If, and only after, alternative solutions are shown not to be possible, then the development must be able to demonstrate ‘imperative reasons of overriding public interest’ (relating for example to human health, public safety or beneficial consequences of primary importance to the environment) to proceed.   In the event that a development proposal passes the IROPI test, compensatory measures must still be provided, for instance the recreation of a comparable habitat.

5.49    Information about the location, characteristics and significance of Craven‘s designated biodiversity and geodiversity sites is available from databases maintained by the district and county councils and the North and East Yorkshire Local Biological Records Centre. Enquiries and discussions are welcomed and encouraged.

POLICY ENV4: BIODIVERSITY

Growth in housing, business and other land uses on allocated and non-allocated sites will be accompanied by improvements in biodiversity. This means that:

a) Wherever possible, development will make a positive contribution towards achieving a net gain in biodiversity and in particular will:

i)     Ensure that there is no adverse effect on any international designated site’s integrity, either alone or in combination with other plans and projects, which is to be demonstrated through Appropriate Assessment. In cases where Appropriate Assessment concludes that adverse effects cannot be avoided or adequately mitigated, development proposals will not be acceptable unless the IROPI test under Article 6(4) of the EU Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Flora and Fauna (The Habitats Directive) has been passed and appropriate and suitable compensatory measures are provided;

ii)      Ensure that there is no adverse impact on any national or local designated sites and their settings, unless it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the local planning authority that the benefit of, and need for the development clearly outweighs the impact on the importance of the designation;

iii)     Avoid the loss of, and encourage the recovery or enhancement of ecological networks, habitats and species populations (especially priority habitats and species as identified in the Craven Biodiversity Action Plan, 2008 or any subsequent update) by incorporating beneficial biodiversity features in the design (i.e. through landscaping or SuDS);

iv)     Conserve and manage the biodiversity and/or geodiversity value of land and     buildings within the site;

v)      Increase trees and woodlands by incorporating appropriate planting, using   native and locally characteristic tree and plant species where possible, and retaining and integrating existing mature and healthy trees and hedgerows that make a positive contribution to the character, appearance and setting of an area;  

vi)     Ensure there is no deterioration in the Water Framework Directive ecological status of surface or ground waterbodies as a result of the development;

vii)   Enable wildlife to move more freely and easily throughout the local environment, including both the natural and built elements.

b)   Development proposals should achieve benefits in biodiversity that are equal to, or where possible exceed the biodiversity value of the site prior to development. Where improvements in biodiversity are achievable these should be on site; however if this is not possible or practical, an equivalent) improvement should be provided off-site by way of mitigation; ideally, this should be as close to the site as possible.

c)   Development proposals that result in a significant loss in, or harm to, biodiversity on site, and where no compensatory measures are proposed, will be resisted.

d)  Would-be developers should be aware that compensation through replacement of biodiversity assets may not be practical or realistic in every case (e.g. recreating ancient woodland or ancient wood pastures) and that any development scheme based on such impractical or unrealistic proposals will not be acceptable.

e)    The loss or deterioration of irreplaceable habitats, including ancient woodland and the loss of aged or veteran trees found outside ancient woodland would be wholly exceptional.

f)   The following allocated sites are accompanied by guiding development principles which identify indicative areas of green infrastructure within each site where an overall net gain in biodiversity will be expected:

Site Reference

Site Address

Approx Area of Green Infrastructure (Ha)

Inset Map

SP5: SKIPTON

SK013

Land east of Aldersley Avenue and south of Moorview Way, Skipton

2.6

1

SK061

East of canal, west of Sharphaw Avenue, Skipton

0.9

1

SK081, SK082, SK108

Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, Skipton

3.5

1

SK088

Hawbank Fields, north of Otley Road and south of A6131, Skipton

4.1

1

SK089, SK090

Land to the north of Airedale Avenue and Elsey Croft, east of railway line, Skipton

2

1

SK094

Land bounded by Carleton Road, railway line and A629, Skipton

7.4

1

SK101

East of Keighley Road and south of Cawder Lane, Skipton

0.6

1

SK114, SK124

Land to east of North Parade and Cawder Road garage site, Horse Close, Skipton

1.1

1

SK049

Land east of Skipton Bypass, Skipton (Employment)

 

1

SP6: SETTLE

SG021, SG066, SG080

Land to the north-west and south-west of Penny Green, Settle

1.2

4

SG025

Land to the south of Ingfield Lane, Settle

7.5

4

SG027, SG068

Land to the south of Brockhole View and west of Brockhole Lane, Settle

0.8

4

SG079

Land to the north of Town Head Way, Settle

0.9

4

SG064

Land to south of Runley Bridge Farm and west of B6480 (Employment-Led Mixed Use)

1.6

4

SP7: BENTHAM

HB052

Land to north west of Bank Head Farm and south of Ghyllhead Farm, High Bentham

2

5

SP8: GLUSBURN / CROSS HILLS

SC085

Land at Malsis, Glusburn

8.6

2

SP10: GARGRAVE

GA009

Land off Eshton Road, north of canal, Gargrave

1.2

14

SP11: BURTON IN LONSDALE

BU012

Richard Thornton’s CE Primary School, Burton in Lonsdale

0.3

7

GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

5.50    Infrastructure is a term typically applied to things like roads, sewers, and telecommunications, which are necessary to support our way of life. The term “green infrastructure” has been introduced to raise the profile of other things considered necessary to support our way of life, especially one that is sustainable, healthy and enjoyable. These include all sorts of natural and semi-natural features, which form a network across rural and urban areas—things like woodland, watercourses, ponds, wetland, hedgerows, verges, Public Rights of Way (PROWs), National Trails, footpaths, cycle-paths, street trees, parks, gardens, playing fields, green roofs and walls, allotments and cemeteries.

5.51    These green infrastructure assets are often multi-functional and make valuable contributions to biodiversity, landscape, townscape, education, active recreation, relaxation and tackling climate change (by absorbing carbon dioxide, assisting the water cycle and alleviating flood risk). Good quality green infrastructure can also boost local economic activity.

5.52    Growth in green infrastructure will benefit Craven‘s environment and economy and the people who live in, work in and visit the area; it will also contribute towards green infrastructure networks that extend beyond Craven‘s boundaries. This growth will need to happen at the same time as growth in housing, employment and other forms of development, and will need to contribute towards the achievement of sustainable development. The following policy (and other relevant local plan policies) will help to create a comprehensive and expanded network of green infrastructure assets. This will involve preserving and enhancing existing assets, creating new assets and strengthening connections between assets. For example, development will need to avoid potential disruption to biodiversity corridors—through fragmentation or isolation—and will need to provide new green spaces, using locally indigenous species, that benefit both wildlife and people.

5.53    The council will support initiatives that enhance or create green infrastructure links within or beyond the plan area, which promote district, sub-regional or regional green infrastructure corridors and projects; green infrastructure links to the Yorkshire Dales National Park and Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, which promote sustainable tourism and recreation.

5.54    Natural England, North Yorkshire County Council, district authorities and voluntary organisations have collaborated on the Yorkshire and Humber Green Infrastructure Mapping Project, which maps green infrastructure corridors and areas of importance outside urban areas. The project has identified a number of corridors within the plan area, including corridors of regional, sub-regional and district importance, and is a useful source of information for planning the preservation, enhancement and expansion of Craven‘s green infrastructure network.

5.55    In addition, the Leeds City Region has developed a Green and Blue Infrastructure Strategy (2017 - 2036), which includes priority projects and investment programmes of sub -regional scale. One such project is Fresh Aire—a flagship project for the enhancement of green infrastructure assets along the Aire and Calder river valleys, linking Craven‘s south sub-area to the Yorkshire Dales National Park upstream and Bradford, Leeds and other Yorkshire authorities downstream.   The Leeds and Liverpool Canal Towpath Access Development Plan is a current project with the aim of capitalising on the value of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal as a strategic waterway and sustainable transport corridor by providing opportunities for East Lancashire and West Yorkshire’s residents and visitors to move around more by foot and by bike.   This project recognises the Leeds Liverpool Canal as an important green infrastructure corridor which provides greater opportunities for access to nature and the wider countryside, including connections with the National Park. The Council is committed to supporting these projects through Policy ENV5 and Policy ENV11.

5.56    Local work also provides a useful source of information for green infrastructure planning—for example the Skipton Natural Links Project, which promotes the enhancement of publically owned sites across Skipton (i.e. Aireville Park which is a visitor destination and an important green infrastructure corridor through Skipton), and the council‘s own open space assessment and Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP).

5.57    Local patterns of growth must help to achieve sustainable development and should avoid town-cramming and concentric urban sprawl, which pushes green space and the countryside further and further away from people living in built up areas. In somewhere like Skipton, for example, urban growth should be interspersed with green corridors that link people with the wider rural hinterland. Improvements to the canal towpath in Skipton will allow easier, more sustainable passage from existing and planned housing to the town centre and beyond.   Future developments can also link in and help to maintain existing pedestrian and cycle routes, thus enhancing the green infrastructure network in an area. In addition to existing and currently planned green corridors and areas of open space, neighbourhood planning and the Local Green Space designation process provides communities with further opportunities to identify important green spaces and to bring forward their own green infrastructure projects.

5.58    Policy ENV5 below aims to plan for better green infrastructure from the outset and looks to all new development to make a reasonable contribution wherever possible, including linking up to existing green infrastructure in the area. This also ties-in with other policy aims, including improvements in biodiversity, tackling climate change, protecting landscape, reducing recreational impact on SPAs/SACs and ensuring a high-quality local environment and an enhanced quality of life. Local plan sites, in particular, will help to create better green infrastructure routes which are multi-functional and mitigate constraints on site, as well as provide better links between built-up areas, green space and the countryside. Site specific development principles within Policies SP5, SP6, SP7, SP8, SP10 and SP11 provide clear detail about the location, purpose and functional use of green infrastructure on each site.

POLICY ENV5: GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

Growth in housing, business and other land uses will be accompanied by an improved and expanded green infrastructure network. This will be achieved in the following ways.

a)     Wherever possible, development proposals will:

i)     Avoid the significant loss of, or harm to, existing green infrastructure assets and the disruption or fragmentation of the green infrastructure network;

ii)    Enhance existing or create new green infrastructure and secure its long-term management and maintenance;

iii)   Enhance existing or create new links in the green infrastructure network, including habitat corridors that help wildlife to move more freely through the local environment.

b)    Development proposals should achieve improvements to the green infrastructure network where possible. Where improvements are viable these should be achieved on site, however if this is not possible or practical, contributions for off-site enhancements should be made for projects as close to the site as possible in order to promote linkages and stepping stones across the green infrastructure network.  

c)    Development proposals that result in a significant fragmentation or loss to the green infrastructure network, and where no compensatory measures are proposed, will be resisted.

d)    The following allocated sites are accompanied by guiding development principles which set out more specifically how improvements and growth to the green infrastructure network can be achieved on each site:

Site Reference

Site Address

Approx Area of Green Infrastructure (Ha)

Inset Map

SP5: SKIPTON

SK013

Land east of Aldersley Avenue and south of Moorview Way, Skipton

2.6

1

SK061

East of canal, west of Sharphaw Avenue, Skipton

0.9

1

SK081, SK082, SK108

Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, Skipton

3.5

1

SK088

Hawbank Fields, north of Otley Road and south of A6131, Skipton

4.1

1

SK089, SK090

Land to the north of Airedale Avenue and Elsey Croft, east of railway line, Skipton

2

1

SK094

Land bounded by Carleton Road, railway line and A629, Skipton

7.4

1

SK101

East of Keighley Road and south of Cawder Lane, Skipton

0.6

1

SK114, SK124

Land to east of North Parade and Cawder Road garage site, Horse Close, Skipton

1.1

1

SK049

Land east of Skipton Bypass, Skipton (Employment)

 

1

SP6: SETTLE

SG021, SG066, SG080

Land to the north-west and south-west of Penny Green, Settle

1.2

4

SG025

Land to the south of Ingfield Lane, Settle

7.5

4

SG027, SG068

Land to the south of Brockhole View and west of Brockhole Lane, Settle

0.8

4

SG079

Land to the north of Town Head Way, Settle

0.9

4

SG064

Land to south of Runley Bridge Farm and west of B6480 (Employment-Led Mixed Use)

1.6

4

SP7: BENTHAM

HB052

Land to north west of Bank Head Farm and south of Ghyllhead Farm, High Bentham

2

5

SP8: GLUSBURN / CROSS HILLS

SC085

Land at Malsis, Glusburn

8.6

2

SP10: GARGRAVE

GA009

Land off Eshton Road, north of canal, Gargrave

1.2

14

SP11: BURTON IN LONSDALE

BU012

Richard Thornton’s CE Primary School, Burton in Lonsdale

0.3

7

FLOOD RISK

5.59    Flood risk continues to be a growing issue nationally and internationally and is closely linked to climate change. In Craven, flood risk is mainly associated with rivers, becks, surface water and drains, but the canal and reservoirs are also potential sources of flooding. Some actual flood events have been significant in recent years and have caused damage and disruption to homes, community facilities, business and travel. Information about flood risk is available from the Environment Agency, the council‘s strategic flood risk assessment and site-specific flood risk assessments that may be carried out for individual parcels of land; and national policy on flood risk is contained in the NPPF.

5.60    Flood risk can be avoided or reduced in a number of ways. Ideally, new development should be located in areas with the lowest risk of flooding (flood zone 1). Development in areas of medium or high risk (flood zone 2 or 3) requires additional scrutiny and justification through the application of the Sequential Test and, if necessary, the Exception Test, which are explained in the NPPF. Development that incorporates Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) can help to reduce the risk from surface water run-off; and areas of the site designed to accommodate surface water (such as swales, ponds and meadows) can provide attractive green space for people and wildlife. Guidance on the design of SuDs is available from North Yorkshire County Council.

5.61    Natural mechanisms to reduce flood risk can also be used on a wider, landscape scale. Peat moorland in the uplands and woodland on valley slopes can help to retain rainwater and slow down drainage into becks and rivers. Care must be taken to ensure that development does not degrade peat soils and upland habitats, as their capacity to store water helps to alleviate downstream flooding and protect water quality. Wetlands, floodplain grasslands, ponds and wet woodlands can offer similar benefits on the valley floor. Keeping, restoring and adding to these features can therefore offer multiple benefits for the landscape, biodiversity and flood risk—including flood risk downstream, in large urban areas.

POLICY ENV6: FLOOD RISK

Growth in Craven will help to avoid and alleviate flood risk in the following ways:

a)    Development will take place in areas of low flood risk wherever possible and always in areas with the lowest acceptable flood risk, by taking into account the development‘s vulnerability to flooding and by applying any necessary sequential and exception test.

b)    Development will safeguard waterways and benefit the local environment (aesthetically and ecologically) by incorporating sustainable drainage systems (SuDS); where the use of SuDS is not possible, feasible or appropriate other means of flood prevention and water management should be used. All surface water drainage systems (SuDS or other) should be economically maintained for the lifetime of the development.

c)    Development will maintain adequate and easy access to watercourses and flood defences, so that they may be managed and maintained by the relevant authority.

d)    Development will avoid areas with the potential to increase flood resilience, and seek to enhance as far as possible the natural capacity of soils, vegetation, river floodplains, wetland and upland habitats to reduce flood risk.   

e)    Development will minimise the risk of surface water flooding by ensuring adequate provision for foul and surface water disposal in advance of occupation (as per standards set out by the Environment Agency and subsequent updates to the standards, see Appendix C). Surface water should be managed at the source and not transferred, and every option should be investigated before discharging surface water into a public sewerage network.

f)     Development will maximise opportunities to help reduce the causes and impacts of flooding by ensuring adequate sufficient attenuation and long term storage is provided to accommodate storm water on site without risk to people or property and without overflowing into a watercourse (as per standards set out by the Environment Agency and subsequent updates to the standards, see Appendix C).

In all of the above, it will be important to refer to the latest and best flood risk information from Craven‘s strategic flood risk assessment and any relevant site-specific flood risk assessment, plus advice from the Environment Agency and the contents of the NPPF.

LAND AND AIR QUALITY

Land Quality

5.62    Whilst most of the land that has been put forward by landowners for inclusion in the Council‘s Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment (SHLAA) is greenfield, there is also some brownfield land that is available and it is possible that additional brownfield land may become available in the future in the form of windfall sites. The re-use of brownfield land is often seen as having a number of benefits—it‘s a form of recycling, it can regenerate and decontaminate an area, and it reduces the need for greenfield development. Therefore, the re-use of brownfield land should be preferred wherever possible, bearing in mind the viability of development and the potential for land to acquire biodiversity value.

5.63    Craven’s agricultural land is considered not to be best and most versatile (BMV) for the majority of the plan area, but there is potential for areas of BMV agricultural land in several parishes. Grade 3 land can provide high yields of grass that can be grazed or harvested over most of the year and is therefore particularly important to Craven‘s livestock farming and local food production. Wherever possible, grade 3 land should be safeguarded and development should be located on lower-graded land. Development on grade 3 land will require justification, on grounds that the need for development outweighs the loss of agricultural value.

5.64    Over many years, the re-use of brownfield land has enabled contamination to be addressed where necessary. There are still numerous sites throughout the plan area where some contamination is a possibility, so the decontamination and re-use of land is likely to continue for some time. In order for development to go ahead, the possibility, nature and extent of any contamination will need to be investigated; any disturbance of contaminants will need to avoid environmental damage and unacceptable health risks, both during and after development; and remediation measures will need to be introduced, as necessary.

5.65    As the mining legacy in Craven is a sizable and locally distinctive issue, unstable land is an important factor that requires consideration as part of any development proposal, and land remediation schemes may be necessary to ensure that the land is remediated to a standard which provides a safe environment for occupants and users. Due consideration should also be afforded to the prior extraction of any remnant shallow coal as part of any mitigation strategy, in line with the requirements of the NPPF. Prior extraction of remnant shallow coal can prove to be a more economically viable method of site remediation than grout filling of voids.

Air Quality

5.66    Whilst Craven generally enjoys low levels of air pollution, growth will need to help maintain good air quality and reduce harmful vehicle emissions. Therefore, new development should be accessible by walking, cycling and public transport and green travel plans should be used to encourage less reliance on cars for local journeys. The layout and design of buildings should be adjusted and modified to reduce emissions and their cumulative impact on air quality into the future.

POLICY ENV7: LAND AND AIR QUALITY

Land Quality

Growth in Craven will help to safeguard and improve land quality in the following ways:

a)   Ensuring significant development avoids the plan area’s best and most   versatile agricultural land (grade 3) wherever possible, unless the need for and benefit of development justifies the scale and nature of the loss.

b)  The re-use of previously developed (brownfield) land of low environmental value will be encouraged and supported.

c)   The remediation of contaminated and unstable land will be encouraged and supported, taking into account what may be necessary, possible, safe and viable.

Air Quality

Growth in Craven will help to safeguard and improve air quality in the following ways:

d) Development will avoid severe residual cumulative impacts of traffic congestion and wherever possible, will help to ease existing traffic congestion.

e) The location, layout and design of development will encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transport and electric vehicles. Green travel plans will promote reductions in car use.

f) The location, layout and design of development will avoid or reduce harmful or unpleasant emissions from buildings, and mitigation measures will be introduced where necessary.

WATER RESOURCES, WATER QUALITY AND GROUNDWATER

5.67    Water is an important and essential resource that needs to be managed in a sustainable way, so that it may continue to support Craven‘s homes, farms, industry, recreation, biodiversity and so on. The mains supply provides most of Craven‘s drinking water, but private water supplies are a significant feature of some remoter rural areas. These private supplies are sourced from ground water and surface water, with ground water being the most common including wells, boreholes and springs. Surface and ground water are important to people and the wider natural environment, so their use needs to be sustainable, sources need to be safeguarded from pollution and over-abstraction (as specified in the Aire and Calder Valley Catchment Management Strategy), and development needs to avoid contamination or obstruction.   The phasing of new sewerage and waste water treatment infrastructure, which may be required to serve new development, will need to avoid overburdening water resources. Given the capacity issues with sewerage infrastructure in areas such as in the Aire Valley, new development may be dependent upon upgrading and enlarging the existing sewerage infrastructure.

5.68    In England and Wales development is required to comply with the Water Framework Directive, through meeting the relevant River Basin Management Plans’ requirements. Specifically, the Humber River Basin Management Plan requires the restoration and enhancement of water bodies to prevent deterioration and promote recovery of water bodies. Any development should safeguard these important water resources and protect and improve water quality with an overall aim of getting water bodies to ‘good’ status as defined by the Water Framework Directive.

POLICY ENV8: WATER RESOURCES, WATER QUALITY AND GROUNDWATER

Growth in Craven will help to safeguard and improve water resources in the following ways:

Water Resources

a)  Development will be served by adequate sewerage and waste water treatment infrastructure, which matches the type, scale, location and phasing of the development, and which safeguards surface and ground water resources.

b)  Development will maximise opportunities for the incorporation of water conservation into its design, including the collection and re-use of water on site.

Water Quality

c)  Development will reduce the risk of pollution and deterioration of water resources by anticipating any likely impact and incorporating adequate mitigation measures into the design.

d) Development will not lead to pollution of controlled waters in line with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive.

Groundwater

e) Developers will protect surface and groundwater from potentially polluting development and activity, by carrying out preliminary site investigations prior to permission being granted to ensure that land is suitable for the intended use.

f)   Developers will ensure that sources of groundwater supply are protected by guiding development away from identified Source Protection Zones (SPZ), i.e. areas close to drinking water sources where the risk associated with groundwater contamination is greatest. The Source Protection Zones in the Craven plan area are shown on the Proposals Map.

RENEWABLE AND LOW CARBON ENERGY

5.69    Climate change is bringing increased average temperatures and rainfall and is resulting in more frequent extreme weather events, including floods. Scientific evidence shows that climate change is partly caused by increased carbon emissions resulting from the way we live.

5.70    Craven‘s total carbon emissions are low, but when the relatively sparse population is taken into account, emissions per head are higher than the regional and national averages. Whilst the explanation for this may be complex, the fact that Craven is a sparsely populated and expansive rural area will play a part—for example, people in Craven may rely more on their cars, because public transport is limited, and may live in older housing stock that is less fuel-efficient. Whilst technological advances and more stringent standards will make cars and homes less and less polluting, this local plan can also help to minimise Craven‘s carbon emissions and achieve national targets[36].

5.71    Generating heat and electricity from renewable and low-carbon technologies is a good way of reducing carbon emissions, but the infrastructure required needs to be located and designed to avoid other negative and unsustainable environmental impacts—on landscape, heritage, biodiversity and people‘s homes. Whilst there is potential in Craven for generating renewable and low-carbon energy, particularly from wind, biomass and anaerobic digestion, this potential is comparatively limited as a result of other considerations.[37]

5.72    The local plan does not, therefore, identify areas of opportunity for larger scale generation projects of a strategic nature. Instead, the following policy establishes a positive stance on renewable and low-carbon energy and encourages well-conceived proposals for sustainable generation projects and infrastructure.

5.73    Whilst there may be limited opportunities for larger scale projects, microgeneration can play an important role in the growth of renewable and low-carbon energy generation in Craven. Where planning permission is required individuals, farms, businesses and communities will be encouraged to bring forward their microgeneration projects, such as solar panels or hydro plants and will be supported wherever possible. Communities in particular may wish to use neighbourhood planning to bring forward renewable and low carbon energy projects within and for their parishes.

5.74    Where waste materials are required to be imported on site for example in the case of anaerobic digestion, North Yorkshire County Council is the relevant Local Planning Authority under their remit for Minerals and Waste.

5.75    Craven is renowned for its landscape quality and renewable energy projects will need to ensure that proposals do not result in unacceptable impacts. Great weight will be given to conserving the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland AONB and its setting and the setting of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. In drawing up and in determining applications for renewable energy projects concerning the Forest of Bowland AONB regard should be given to the Forest of Bowland Energy Position Statement 2011 (Revised), or its future successor. In managing landscape sensitivity and visual impacts developers and decision makers should have regard to 'Managing Landscape Change: Renewable & Low Carbon Energy Developments - a Landscape Sensitivity Framework for North Yorkshire and York (2012)' which establishes a coherent decision-making framework for renewable and low carbon energy developments.

5.76    To reduce visual impact grid connections to and from any renewable energy facility or plant should be provided underground. Developers will need to demonstrate that historical or archaeological features will not be adversely impacted upon. The environmental impact of access tracks to access or maintain facilities and the appropriateness of the local highway network should also be carefully considered.

5.77    Infrastructure developments may have cumulative or combined effects where similar developments exist or are planned in the area—for example, installing a wind turbine where one or more already exist may raise concerns about visual clutter and conflict caused by their placement, disruption of the skyline or fragmentation of the landscape. Such cumulative or combined effects can stretch beyond plan area boundaries and may call for co-operation between neighbouring authorities.

5.78    Potential effects on designated biodiversity sites may be indirect, such as the effect of rotating turbine blades on the migration patterns of birds. However, effects can also be direct and can include collision of blades with birds and bats species and barotrauma affecting bat species. Therefore, whilst Policy ENV9 promotes the sustainable growth of renewable and low-carbon energy, proposals will need to consider carefully ecological effects and accord with other local plan policies and help to achieve sustainable development overall.

5.79    There is potential for wind turbines to have an impact on aircraft, radar and telecommunications systems. Therefore it is advised that developers enter into pre-application discussions with the Ministry of Defence, Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ) or any other relevant body. The Council will also seek advice from these bodies through the decision-making process as a means of understanding the potential impact of wind turbine development.

5.80    Developers, particularly where larger scale projects are proposed should engage with the community at an early stage in the planning process and where feasible actively seek to deliver wider community benefits.

5.81    In some instances, renewable energy projects may be subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This may be the case where significant environmental implications are identified for the surrounding area during its development/or operation.  

5.82    On 18th June 2015 the Government released a Written Ministerial Statement which brought into force new considerations for wind energy development. Local people now have the final say on wind farm applications. The NPPG has since been subsequently amended. Furthermore, there is now a requirement for ‘suitable areas’ of potential where they exist to be identified on the Local Plan policies map.

5.83    The statement does not differentiate between commercial wind turbines where the intention is to feed electricity into the grid and those of a small scale nature where the primary purpose may be to meet the operational needs of a farmstead or rural business. Requiring all sites including small scale turbines to be identified is considered somewhat over-restrictive.

5.84      Evidence prepared as part of the plan making process has focused on turbines of 100m or over which would be strategic in nature and make a significant contribution towards energy generation. The NPPF states that evidence prepared for the Local Plan should be proportionate, and requiring evidence to identify the suitability of all potential areas for wind energy across the various scales is considered disproportionate. Impacts of small scale individual turbines, defined as turbines under 50m in height to the tip are likely to be different from those of commercial wind turbines of 100m or more.

5.85      Therefore in order to support the needs of a farmstead or other rural business and to enable the development of community led schemes benefiting local communities including those where a neighbourhood plan has not yet been prepared, small scale turbines will be deemed acceptable in accordance with the criteria set out in Policy ENV9 notwithstanding the content of the written ministerial statement.

POLICY ENV9 : RENEWABLE AND LOW CARBON ENERGY

Renewable and low carbon energy development will help to reduce carbon emissions and support sustainable development. This will be achieved by;

a) Supporting projects and infrastructure proposals that offer a good balance of economic, environmental and social benefits, and are not outweighed on balance by one or more negative impacts.

b) Ensuring that there are no significant adverse impacts on natural, built and historic assets, and developments harmonise with the local environment and respect the character of the immediate setting and wider landscape.

c) Avoiding developments that may detract from the landscape and scenic beauty of the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty or its setting and the setting of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

d) Safeguarding the amenity of local residents and communities, and ensuring that satisfactory mitigation can be achieved to minimise impacts such as noise, smell or other pollutants.

e) Developers engaging with the community at the earliest stages of the planning process and seeking to achieve community benefits wherever possible.

f) Ensuring there are no unacceptable impacts on civil, military aviation, radar and telecommunications installations.

g) Supporting proposals which demonstrate that the natural environment including designated sites will not be adversely affected without satisfactory mitigation. Enhancements should be achieved wherever possible.

h)Supporting proposals where the potential cumulative impacts are not found to be significantly adverse.

i) Ensuring operational requirements can be met including accessibility and suitability of the local road network, ability to connect to the grid and where relevant, proximity of feedstock.

j) Grid connections being provided underground, wherever feasible without adversely impacting upon historical or archaeological assets.

k) Ensuring measures are in place to secure the removal of infrastructure should it become redundant or no longer operational and that satisfactory site restoration can be achieved.

Commercial Scale Wind Turbines/Farms

The Council has not identified suitable areas for commercial scale wind turbines or farms for the purpose of providing power into the National Grid within Craven. The development of commercial scale wind turbines or wind farms for the purposes of inputting power into the National Grid will therefore only be permitted where criteria a) to k) listed above are met and;

i) the site is located within an area defined as being suitable for such use within an adopted Neighbourhood Plan; and

ii) following consultation, it can be demonstrated that the planning impacts identified by affected communities have been fully addressed and therefore the proposal has their backing.

Small Scale Wind Turbines

In the case of small scale turbines, defined as turbines under 50m in height to the tip, proposals will be supported where they meet the criteria a) to k) listed above and;

iii) they are directly related to, and generate power principally for the operation of a farmstead or other rural business or a local settlement; or

iv) the site is identified as being suitable for the development of wind turbines within an adopted Neighbourhood Plan.

LOCAL GREEN SPACE

5.86    Paragraphs 77 & 78 of the NPPF introduced the Local Green Space (LGS) Designation. This designation allows local communities to identify areas of local green space which are important to them and which should be provided special protection. LGS can only be designated when a Local Plan or Neighbourhood Plan is prepared or reviewed. The Gargrave Neighbourhood Plan was formally ‘made’ in July 2019 and designates land as LGS. Neighbourhood Plans are currently being prepared in Bradley, Clapham & Cononley. An assessment of potential LGS sites will be made during the preparation of these Neighbourhood Plans and any other Neighbourhood Plans prepared by parishes in the future.

5.87    Sites have been identified for assessment via a “call for sites” process. The community, including residents, interest groups and Parish Councils were invited to submit applications for sites to be considered for LGS designation and to identify the reasons why the site/s holds a particular importance for the local community. Sites have been assessed against a robust methodology (which was developed following consultation with stakeholders) to determine their suitability for designation.   In addition, sites designated in the 1999 Local Plan as open space, existing recreation/amenity space, and protected road approaches have been assessed for LGS designation. These sites were identified through consultation for the preparation of the 1999 Local Plan as being valued by local communities. The LGS process for the new Craven Local Plan has reassessed these sites in the same way as sites submitted through the “call for sites” process to consider their suitability for LGS designation.    

5.88    The Craven Local Plan identifies a total of 34 sites for LGS designation through the Local Plan. The sites identified on the Policies Map and listed in the policy have been assessed in accordance with the criteria for Local Green Space as set out in the NPPF and are therefore considered to be in reasonably close proximity to the community they serve; local in character and not an extensive tract of land; and are demonstrably special to the local community, holding particular local significance

5.89    The purpose of LGS is to protect green areas of particular importance to local communities and to provide special protection. Local Green Space will be protected from development that is incompatible with this specific designation and will only be allowed in very special circumstances. Development on land designated as LGS should be compatible with the designation, should preserve the open character of the LGS and the local significance placed on such green areas which make them valued by their local community.

5.90    The NPPF is clear that designation of Local Green Space should be consistent with the wider planning policy for the area and should look to complement investment in the provision of new homes and employment services and other essential services. Designation of land as Local Green Space should therefore not be seen as a means to stop wider development needs throughout the plan area or be used as a way that undermines the aims of plan making. As such, the consideration of designating Local Green Space has been taken alongside consideration of potential allocations of land for development (e.g. for housing, employment or other commercial needs) as a balanced approach, considering all relevant criteria and needs within the plan area.

5.91    Some sites proposed for designation as Local Green Space in Policy ENV10 are also safeguarded from unnecessary or avoidable loss under Policy INF3: Sport, Open Space and Recreation Facilities. Where sites are safeguarded under Policy INF3 and are also designated as Local Green Space, proposals for development will need to meet the requirements of both policies. The aim of Policy ENV10 is to protect Local Green Space from development that is incompatible with the Local Green Space designation.

POLICY ENV10: LOCAL GREEN SPACE

The sites identified in the table below, and as identified on the Policies Map, are designated as Local Green Space:

High and Low Bentham

HB-LGS3

East of Station Rd and south west of Pye Busk, High Bentham

Bradleys Both

LGS sites assessed as part of Neighbourhood Plan preparation.

Carleton in Craven

CA – LGS2

Heslaker Lane, Carleton

CA – LGS6

North of Vicars Row, Carleton

CA – LGS8

The Pine Trees, Westwood, Carleton

CA – LGS9

St. Mary’s Green, Carleton

Cononley

LGS sites assessed as part of Neighbourhood Plan preparation.

Embsay with Eastby

EM – LGS2

Between Main Street & Shires Croft

EM – LGS3

South of Village Hall, Main Street, Embsay

EM – LGS6

East side of West Lane, Embsay

EM- LGS11

Fields adjacent to Kirk Lane, Embsay

Gargrave

LGS sites assessed as part of Neighbourhood Plan preparation.

Glusburn

GLUS-LGS1

Glusburn Park

Hellifield

HE-LGS5

Field adjacent St. Aidan’s Church

HE-LGS7

Gallaber Pond, Hellifield

Ingleton

IN-LGS2

Ingleton Park off Thacking Lane, Ingleton

Kildwick

KL-LGS2

Fields by Kildwick Bridge, Main Road, Kildwick, BD20 9BD

KL-LGS4

Parson's Walk and Glebe Field

KL-LGS5

Banks Field (Lower section), Priest Bank Road

KL-LGS6

Field south of the Recreation Ground, Priest Bank Road

Settle & Giggleswick

SG-LGS4

The Green, Commercial Street, Settle

SG-LGS15

Bowling green off Station Road, Settle

SG-LGS22

Glebe Field, Giggleswick

Skipton

SK-LGS1

Massa Flatts Wood

SK-LGS2

Land between Shortbank Road & allotments

SK-LGS11

South Side of The Bailey, Skipton

SK-LGS28

Bowling Green Rope Walk

SK-LGS33

Aireville Park

SK-LGS46

Road approach, north side of Gargrave Road, between roundabout & Aireville Grange

SK-LGS47

Land to the north of Gargrave Road, between Aireville Grange and Park View

SK-LGS48

Road approach, south side of Gargrave Road, west of entrance to Auction Mart

SK-LGS49

Road approach, south side of Gargrave Road, east of entrance to Auction Mart

SK-LGS51

Road approach, between Harrogate Road & Overdale Grange

SK-LGS55

Gawflat Meadow

SK-LGS60

Burnside House

SK-LGS66

Land to the north of Skipton up to and including the PROW at Short Lee Lane, west of Skipton Castle Woods SINC, and east of Grassington Road, Skipton.

Sutton in Craven

SC-LGS5

Sutton Park, Main Street, Sutton-in-Craven

Sites designated as Local Green Space and identified on the Policies Map will be protected from incompatible development that would adversely impact on their open character and the particular local significance placed on such green areas which make them valued by their local community. Incompatible development is harmful to areas designated as Local Green Space and should not be approved except in very special circumstances.   The construction of new buildings or structures on land designated as Local Green Space will be regarded as incompatible development with the following exceptions:

a)       Buildings for agriculture and forestry;

b)       Appropriate facilities for outdoor sport, outdoor recreation and cemeteries, provided openness of the Local Green Space is preserved and there is no conflict with the purpose of designating the site as Local Green Space;

c)       The extension or alteration of a building on the site, provided it does not result in disproportionate additions over and above the size of the original building;

d)       The replacement of a building, provided the new building is in the same use and not materially larger than the one it replaces;

e)        Other forms of development, including, engineering operations, local transport infrastructure, and the re-use of buildings, providing they preserve the open character of the Local Green Space and the local significance placed on such green areas which make them valued by their local community.

THE LEEDS & LIVERPOOL CANAL

5.92    The Leeds & Liverpool Canal is the longest canal in Britain built as a single waterway at 127 miles in length. The canal is a significant built and natural asset within Craven passing through the south of the plan area for a distance of approximately 17 miles.

5.93    The Thanet Canal (also known as the Springs Branch) is a short branch (approximately a third of a mile long) of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal running to Skipton Castle constructed in the late eighteenth century to serve limestone quarries near the castle owned by Lord Thanet.

5.94    The Canal provides a resource as a wildlife and habitat corridor; a recreational route for walking, canoeing, cycling and running; a route for commuters who walk or cycle along the towpath to get to work or school; and as a tourism asset for those pursuing holidays on narrow boats as well as day-trippers seeking a place for peace and reflection. The industrial heritage of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal is one of the defining elements of the area and provides a rich historic environment for current and future generations to enjoy.

5.95    The setting and the character of the Canal varies from a highly rural environment outside settlements, through villages such as Gargrave, Bradley, Farnhill and Kildwick, to the more urban environment through Skipton. Many new developments including the re-use and conversion of existing buildings have taken place along or in proximity of the canal benefiting from the waterside setting and environment; this has particularly been the case within Skipton. There are further opportunities for development in appropriate locations during the lifetime of the Local Plan.

5.96    Development opportunities will need to recognise the waterside potential whilst maintaining and reinstating the characteristics of local canal architecture and waterscape.

5.97    New waterside developments place extra liabilities and burdens on waterway infrastructure and also provide an opportunity for infrastructure to be improved. When considering proposals for new development along the canal the Council will work with the Canal & River Trust to ensure that any necessary improvements to the canal infrastructure arising directly from needs generated by new developments are met by developer contributions secured through Planning Obligations.

5.98    The Water Framework Directive applies to the Canal, so developments that could impact on the water quality would need to meet the provisions of Policy ENV8. A number of sites identified in the local plan as housing and employment sites for allocation are within reasonable proximity of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal and new development at these locations will also be required to have regard to this policy and the requirements of Policy INF3, ENV8 and Appendix A.

POLICY ENV11: THE LEEDS & LIVERPOOL CANAL

Development adjacent to, adjoining or which is likely to impact upon the character of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal including the Thanet Canal (Springs Branch) in Skipton will be expected to:

a) Be of a high quality design that safeguards its historic character and integrates the canal into the development proposal in a way that treats the waterway as an area of usable space;

b) Integrate the waterway, towing path and canal environment into the public realm in terms of the design and management of the development;

c) Improve access to, along and from the waterway,   including for wheelchair-users, people with limited mobility and people with other disabilities and improve the environmental quality of the waterway corridor. This will include supporting the wildlife that uses the Canal with appropriate plantings, provision of features such as bat and bird boxes, and connectivity of habitat, and maintaining the water quality of the Canal in line with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive;

d) Optimise views of water and generate natural surveillance of water space through the siting, configuration and orientation of buildings, recognising that appropriate boundary treatment and access issues may differ between the towing path and offside of the canal, and;

e) Improve the amenity of the canal. Development that would have an adverse   impact on the amenity of the canal by virtue of noise, odour or visual impact will not be supported.

FOOTPATHS, BRIDLEWAYS, BYWAYS AND CYCLE ROUTES

5.99    Most of Craven’s footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes are public rights of way (PROWs), but a notable exception is the towpath of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, which is a ‘permissive path’. The council recognises the value placed upon these public assets, by residents, visitors and businesses, for the recreational, health, well-being and economic benefits they provide. Therefore, through local plan Policy ENV12, the council will work for the protection and enhancement of footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes and will ensure that Craven’s growth includes growth in their extent, quality and accessibility.

Public rights of way – PROWs

5.100  Craven’s public rights of way have a range of uses and benefits. They can provide shortcuts within settlements; connect settlements with the countryside and take people away from traffic, crowds and noise. They can be practical, by simply getting us from A to B without having to drive, or they can be inspirational, by leading us through great and romantic landscapes. Therefore, the local plan’s aim of protecting and enhancing Craven’s public rights of way network will help to secure benefits for the local environment, quality of life and economy by reducing car-dependence, improving health and well-being and promoting tourism and recreation.

National Trails

5.101 National Trails are long distance walking, cycling and horse riding routes through the best landscapes in England and Wales. There are 16 in total and two of them pass through Craven: the Pennine Way and the Pennine Bridleway. These are particularly important and beneficial PROWs.

Leeds & Liverpool Canal

5.102  The Canal and Rivers Trust provides a permissive path for walking and cycling along the towpath of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal. This is a valuable addition to the local PROWs network and an important link with neighbouring areas of Lancashire, to the southwest, and West Yorkshire, to the southeast. Local plan Policy ENV11 is devoted specifically to the Leeds & Liverpool Canal.

Access

5.103  North Yorkshire County Council is responsible for the Rights of Way Improvement Plan (RoWIP), which is currently under review, and hosts the Local Access Forum (LAF), which advises on how to make the countryside more accessible. The local plan supports the RoWIP and LAF and will work in partnership to achieve common aims, including making the countryside more accessible for wheelchair-users, people with limited mobility and people with other disabilities.

New development

5.104  Proposals to build new homes, businesses or other types of development will need to ensure that no harm is caused to any existing footpaths, bridleways or cycle routes within or near the site. This would include harm arising from a reduction in usability or amenity value or from an obstruction, blockage[38] or diversion. Development should avoid confining footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycles routes between buildings, fences and other structures, particularly where they previously had an open aspect. Instead, they should be incorporated into the design of green open space to be created within the site.

5.105  If continuing economic, environmental and social benefits are to be enjoyed, Craven’s growth will need to secure ongoing improvement and expansion of the local PROWs network, as well as its protection. Therefore, wherever possible, new development should include measures for improvement and expansion of the network. This could include better infrastructure, disabled access and signage; enhanced usability, functionality and amenity value; and new PROWs, links between PROWs and links from new developments to the local network.

Town and village loops

5.106  The council will be particularly keen to support proposals that help to create local trails for walking, cycling and horse riding within and around local towns and villages. In particular, the council will look for opportunities to create town and village loops by joining up existing PROWs, securing new links across development sites and working in partnership with relevant stakeholders.

Countryside, green infrastructure and tourism

5.107  The importance of protecting and enhancing footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes is further reinforced in local plan policies ENV1: Countryside and Landscape, ENV5: Green Infrastructure and EC4: Tourism.

POLICY ENV12: FOOTPATHS, BRIDLEWAYS, BYWAYS AND CYCLE ROUTES

Craven’s growth will safeguard and improve the quality, extent and accessibility of local footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes and the network they form. To that end, the local planning authority will support proposals that preserve and, wherever possible, enhance footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes and their settings. Specific support will be given to proposals which:

a) Avoid obstruction, diversion or confinement of existing footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes.

b) Enhance the route, usability and amenity value of existing footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes.

c) Accommodate existing footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes within green open space.

d) Create new footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes, particularly where they would provide new links to enhance the local network.

e) Improve access by creating links between new development and the local network; and

f) Improve access for disabled people.

The local planning authority will also give specific support to:

g) The creation, enhancement and extension of National Trails.

h) The enhancement of green infrastructure corridors, at regional, sub-regional and district level, through the improvement of existing and the creation of new footpaths, bridleways, byways and cycle routes.

i) Proposals that contribute to the creation of town or village loops.

j) Proposals that include short, well-surfaced, stile-free circuits suitable for wheelchair-users and people with limited mobility.

GREEN WEDGES

5.108  Green Wedges (originally designated in the Council’s 1999 local plan[39]) comprise open areas around and between settlements, which help to maintain the distinction between the countryside and built up areas, prevent the coalescence of separate towns and villages and provide or have the potential to provide recreational opportunities. Following a review[40], the Council is carrying forward a modified Green Wedge designation in the form of Policy ENV13.

5.109  The Green Wedge designation has the objective of maintaining and reinforcing the individual character and identity of settlements in close proximity by restricting any development that would cause their physical coalescence. In addition, Green Wedges may provide or have the potential to provide a valuable recreational resource, which should also be afforded protection. Policy ENV13 therefore seeks to resist new development that would compromise the spatial gaps and recreational value provided by designated Green Wedges, unless material considerations indicate otherwise. Whilst it is important to note that the designation is not intended to represent landscape value, which is addressed in other local plan policies (primarily Policy ENV1: Countryside and Landscape), maintaining gaps between settlements is likely to be consistent with protecting landscape character. This is particularly true with respect to Bentham, where the Green Wedge may also help to protect the setting and special qualities of the Forest of Bowland AONB.

Bentham

5.110  The Green Wedge between High Bentham and Low Bentham is intended to counter historic patterns of suburban ‘ribbon development’ between the two settlements and consists mainly of agricultural fields on both sides of Low Bentham Road (B6480).

Glusburn, Cross Hills and Sutton-in-Craven

5.111  This Green Wedge is particularly thin between Cross Hills and Sutton, at the intersection of Holme Lane and Holme Beck, but continues to be highly effective in maintaining an important spatial gap between the two settlements. Similarly, the Green Wedge maintains effective separation between the village of Sutton-in-Craven, the district and county boundary to the east and the built-up area of Eastburn beyond, which is within the metropolitan district of Bradford.

Kildwick & Farnhill and Glusburn & Cross Hills

5.112  The Green Wedge in this location includes land to the east of Glusburn & Cross Hills and consists of agricultural fields and the River Aire. It is most effective in maintaining distinct settlements (including settlements in the neighbouring district of Bradford), but its value as a recreational resource is somewhat limited by the busy intersection of the A629, B6172 and Skipton Road.

POLICY ENV13: GREEN WEDGES

Green Wedges will help settlements to grow in ways that maintain and reinforce their individual character and identity, by safeguarding against the coalescence of separate built-up areas, and will help to maintain and, wherever possible, enhance local recreational opportunities. Therefore, within the Green Wedges listed below and defined on the Policies Map, development will be resisted where it would fail to preserve the separate character and identity of settlements or would fail to preserve the sense of separation between settlements. In addition, the Council will seek to consolidate, strengthen and enhance the character, appearance and, where appropriate, recreational value of these areas.

1. Land between High and Low Bentham.

2. Land between Glusburn, Cross Hills, Sutton-in-Craven, Farnhill and Kildwick and up to the plan area/district/county boundary, near Eastburn, West Yorkshire.

SECTION 6: HOUSING

SPECIALIST HOUSING FOR OLDER PEOPLE

6.1      People in Craven are living longer, which means that there are more active older people in good health in the population, but also more people (especially the very old) living with on-going conditions that may affect their mobility, hampering their ability to get out and about and socialise, leading to issues of loneliness and isolation for many.  

6.2      The number of people across Craven District aged 65 or over is projected to increase from 14,000 in 2015 to 21,200 by 2037 (a 50% increase) according to ONS 2014-based population projections, so it is important that there is provision of a range of appropriate housing provision, adaptation and support for Craven’s older population.   Additionally, providing a wider range of older persons’ accommodation has the potential to free-up larger family accommodation. The two main types of this specialist housing for older people are:

  • Age Restricted-Exclusive/Sheltered/Retirement Housing – This is accommodation that is built specifically for sale or rent to older people. They comprise self-contained units (apartments) with communal facilities and a live-in or mobile scheme manager and alarm call systems in case of emergency, and
  • Assisted Living/Extra Care/Very Sheltered Housing – This is similar to Sheltered Housing, but is designed to enable residents to retain their independence as they grow older and their need for support and/or care increases. Residents still occupy their own self-contained home with blocks of flats, estates of bungalows or retirement ‘villages’ but often enjoy enhanced communal accommodation and occupants may also be offered individual care and assistance from support staff, within the complex, 24 hours per day.

6.3      The provision of affordable housing for local needs is an important objective of the plan and the Council’s evidence on viability identifies that both private and public sector housing for older people can make a contribution towards affordable housing. This evidence, referenced in the supporting text to Policy H2, justifies minimum levels of affordable housing for private sector schemes on site or an equivalent financial contribution for off-site provision. These minimum levels of on-site provision are set out in Policy H2: Affordable Housing of the plan. The Council will publish additional practical guidance on the provision of affordable housing for this and general market housing in the form of a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD). In consultation with stakeholders, this SPD will set out more detail on how Policy H2 will operate and be administered.

6.4      The Strategic Housing Market Assessment Update November 2017(SHMA) includes information on the likely scale of increased demand for older person’s specialist provision, and suggests that there is a need to double the current level of provision for older people, particularly the provision of enhanced sheltered and extra care provision.[41]

6.5      The SHMA also highlights that research tends to show that the majority of older people (generally upwards of 65%) want to stay in their own homes with help and support when needed, so as well as increased provision overall, it is important that a more diverse range of housing options is provided to meet the diverse housing needs of older people.

POLICY H1: SPECIALIST HOUSING FOR OLDER PEOPLE

The diverse housing needs of older people in the area will be met by:-

a)  supporting the provision of specialist housing for older people across all tenures in locations with reasonable access to local services, facilities and public transport, provided proposals accord with Policy SP4, H2, and INF3 and all other relevant local plan policies;

b)  supporting proposals to adapt/extend existing residential properties to meet the needs of those with disabilities and older people;

c)  allocating specific sites in Settle, Bentham and Gargrave within Policies SP6, SP7 and SP10 respectively for delivering specialist forms of residential accommodation to meet the housing needs of older people.

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Affordable housing need and evidence

6.6       Households in affordable housing need are those who lack their own housing or who live in unsuitable accommodation and cannot afford to meet their housing needs in the housing market. Craven has a significant need for affordable housing, largely as a result of a mismatch between local incomes and the cost of renting or buying homes. Evidence from the Council’s 2017 Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) indicates that the minimum incomes required for entry-level open market renting and owner-occupation are £23,712 and £36,000, respectively. This means that only a very small minority of households on the housing register could afford open market rents or prices. More generally, households with single earners can only afford lower quartile rents based on income alone. There is a greater range of rented housing options that are affordable to average earners, although even lower quartile, median and average house prices would still be unaffordable.

6.7       According to the 2017 SHMA, Craven’s net affordable housing imbalance is 126 dwellings per annum and future affordable housing provision should be approximately 15%-25% intermediate tenure, and 75%-85% affordable rented, with 87.4% one and two bedroom dwellings and 12.6% three (or more) bedroom dwellings. Based on the Housing Register in 2017 reported in Table 7.2 of the 2017 SHMA, the greatest need is for two bed dwellings and this is to meet the needs of newly forming households. The SHMA also recommends that intermediate tenure options should continue to be actively promoted, particularly for newly-forming households, and identifies a potential market for 154 starter homes over 5 years (31 per annum). In determining planning applications, the Council will have regard to the need to deliver an appropriate mix and range of affordable housing and will have regard to the most up to date evidence of need from the SHMA and any other relevant sources such as the Housing Register (which is a continually updated waiting list for rented affordable housing).

6.8       Craven’s housing market will be reassessed periodically to ensure that evidence of affordable housing need remains up to date.     

Addressing affordable housing need

6.9   The NPPF states that where local authorities have identified that affordable housing is needed, local plans should contain policies for meeting this need on site, unless off site provision or a financial contribution of broadly equivalent value can be justified. This plan has been examined against the provisions of the 2012 NPPF. This version of the NPPF combined with the NPPG, included thresholds below which on site affordable housing provision and off site financial contributions should not be required. These and the reference to vacant building credit are given below:

  • Local Planning Authorities should no longer seek affordable housing contributions from developments of 10-units or less, and those which have a maximum combined gross floor space of no more than 1,000 square metres (gross internal area)
  • In designated rural areas authorities may choose to implement a lower threshold of 5 dwellings or less. Where the lower 5-unit or less threshold is applied, affordable housing and tariff style contributions should be sought from developments of between 6 and 10 units in the form of cash payments which are commuted until after completion of units within the development
  • Vacant building credit has been introduced. Authorities should apply  the credit where developments include the re-use or redevelopment of empty buildings, so that affordable housing contributions relate only to net increases in floor space.

6.10   The Craven Local Plan Viability Assessment: Addendum (November 2017) has assessed the impact of the Council’s emerging policies which seek developer contributions for open space, sport and recreation, education, highway infrastructure and affordable housing on the viability of ‘typical’ housing sites that are likely to come forward during the plan period. Fourteen different typologies have been assessed and tested based on different sizes and locations across the plan area, including sites between the thresholds of 6 to 10 dwellings. The Viability Assessment concludes that 30% affordable housing on greenfield sites is viable across all site typologies for general market housing.

6.11    The Craven Local Plan Viability Reports: Brownfield Land Update (October 2018) and the Supported Living for Older People Update (Oct/Nov 2018) provide the justification for the level of affordable housing contributions set out in this policy for general market housing on previously developed land and for specialist housing for older people on both greenfield and previously developed land.   A definition of the two types of specialist housing for older people set out in this policy is provided in the supporting text to Policy H1 of this plan.

6.12    The Spatial Strategy of the local plan at Policy SP4 makes an allowance for sites to be delivered in the smaller Tier 5 settlements across the plan area, most of which are designated rural areas[42]. The conclusion of the Viability Assessment is that the provision of 30% affordable housing on small sites between the thresholds of 6 to 10 dwellings is viable.   This means that developments of 6 to 10 dwellings can contribute in a small, but nevertheless important way to a key objective of the local plan to improve housing choice in terms of house type, size, tenure, price and location and to address the issue of a shortfall in affordable homes across Craven, as evidenced in the SHMA 2017. A lower threshold of 5 dwellings in the designated rural areas of Craven is therefore considered to be justified. Financial contributions will be required from such sites rather than on-site provision.

6.13    To address the issue of a shortfall in affordable homes across Craven, increasing the supply of new affordable homes is a priority for the local plan. Securing new affordable homes through the planning system is an effective way of achieving this. The local plan sets out policy mechanisms which seek to maximise affordable housing provision through a number of approaches, including: the contribution of affordable homes by housing developers, where the homes are usually taken on by registered providers (e.g. housing associations); financial contributions from housing developers, where the money is used to secure affordable homes off-site; and the release of rural exception sites. As well as registered providers, there are other affordable housing providers who may operate under equivalent arrangements or, more often, may specialise in offering innovative intermediate tenure products. In addition to increasing the supply of new affordable homes, Craven District Council, North Yorkshire County Council and registered providers will seek to reduce the need for affordable housing through homeless prevention measures, mortgage rescue schemes and the provision of grants and loans to support necessary alterations or energy efficiency measures to improve existing unsuitable housing. The local plan’s employment policies will also help to make living in Craven more affordable for people who work in Craven, by promoting local employment opportunities.

6.14    Affordable housing is housing for sale or rent, for those whose needs are not met by the market and is defined in the NPPF.

6.15    Despite the scale of need in Craven, the local plan cannot insist that all new homes to be built in the future are built as affordable housing. The main way in which additional affordable housing will be provided in Craven in the future is as a contribution from developers as a proportion of housing built on new development sites.

Affordable housing target and viability

6.16    The scale of need revealed by the 2017 SHMA justifies the Council establishing a high target for the amount of affordable housing that will be required from new development sites. However, it is important that this target is realistic and set at a level that allows housing land to come forward and maintains the delivery of new homes without making schemes unviable. It is also important to ensure that the need to provide affordable housing is balanced with the need for developers of housing sites to contribute to necessary infrastructure improvements and community facilities as well as to build to improved sustainable construction standards. Along with affordable housing contributions these factors all influence the economics of housing schemes and ultimately the decisions of landowners to release sites.

6.17    The Council’s Local Plan Viability Assessment Addendum ( November 2017) has been used to inform the affordable housing targets and site thresholds. The assessment work indicates that, for all the different types and sizes of greenfield sites[43] typically found and likely to come forward in the plan area, the vast majority of sites will be able to deliver 30% affordable housing. It is expected therefore that, normally, it will be viable for housing sites in Craven to provide 30% affordable dwellings and meet other planning obligation requirements of the local plan.   Abnormal costs associated with individual sites should be negotiated between the developer and the landowner.

6.18    In some circumstances, development proposals may seek to include a lower proportion of affordable housing. To comply with this policy these circumstances must be exceptional. For example, unusual and wholly unexpected/unforeseen development costs which affect scheme viability, or where there are clear and overriding reasons to meet other planning objectives, such as the restoration of heritage assets. In these exceptional circumstances developers will be expected to conduct negotiations on a transparent and ‘open book’ basis[44]. In all cases the Council will look to maximise the provision of affordable housing having regard to the circumstances of individual sites and scheme viability.

Size and tenure of affordable homes

6.19    The local plan aims to secure a mix of on-site affordable housing provision to reflect the needs of local communities, based on the most up-to-date evidence of need, including the SHMA 2017. Policy SP3 provides a guide to the overall mix of dwelling sizes needed across the plan area. This includes affordable dwellings, of which around 15-25% will need to be intermediate tenure and around 75-85% will need to be social/affordable rented. The precise mix of tenures on a scheme will be negotiated to ensure that the type of affordable housing provision on schemes reflects the needs of the locality.

Financial and off-site contributions

6.20    The basis of the calculation of financial contributions in lieu of on-site provision will be the difference between affordable housing transfer values and open market values for 70sqm two-bedroom houses assuming they are available on the same site. On flatted schemes, the commuted sum will be based on the affordable housing transfer values for similar units. The market value of dwellings will be determined having regard to the asking price and any sales where contracts have been exchanged, along with any evidence of market sales in the locality. The value of affordable housing will be determined by the Council’s latest published transfer prices[45] (the prices a registered provider will pay to a developer for affordable units). Any financial contributions obtained will be used to secure off-site provision to help meet the district’s affordable housing needs. Such off-site contributions/provision will rarely be appropriate for general housing and will be acceptable only where doing so would meet wider planning or housing objectives e.g. on flatted schemes where management arrangements may make on-site affordable housing more expensive through the application of service charges. The Council will publish additional practical guidance on the provision of affordable housing in the form of a supplementary planning document (SPD). This will include guidance on the limited circumstances in which off-site provision or financial contributions will be considered in lieu of on-site provision and more detail on how financial contributions will be calculated.

6.21    A vacant building credit is equivalent to the existing gross floorspace of any vacant buildings on a site and is deducted from the normal affordable housing contribution required by the Council. It applies to vacant buildings that are to be brought back into use or to be demolished for re-development, but not to abandoned buildings. This is national policy and is intended to incentivise brownfield development, including the reuse or redevelopment of empty and redundant buildings. The Council will use national policy and guidance to determine whether a vacant building credit should apply to a particular development and will use the credit to help bring forward brownfield development that might not otherwise occur or might be postponed indefinitely. Vacant building credit will be deducted from the overall affordable housing contribution calculation. This will apply in calculating either the number of affordable housing units to be provided within the development or where an equivalent financial contribution is being provided.

6.22    Funds gathered through financial contributions will be combined and used in a range of ways to address affordable housing need across the district and to prevent households falling into need. Funds will be used to maximise provision and ensure an effective use of resources and may be used to address need in a range of ways. This may include, for example, the acquisition of land for rural exception sites, direct provision (building) of new affordable homes or the purchase of existing properties on the open market, including new and empty homes and properties to provide shared housing or houses in multiple occupation. The use of financial contributions provides the opportunity to target affordable housing need in smaller rural communities. It also provides some flexibility to provide a range of accommodation types and to respond to changing wider circumstances that have the potential to affect need over time.

Rural exception sites

6.23    Rural exception sites[46] are sites that are released to provide affordable housing in locations which would not normally be used for housing. They provide an important opportunity to address affordable housing need in smaller communities and are a long standing mechanism supported by national policy to support the provision of rural affordable housing. Given that affordable housing need is spread across the district, the use of this approach is supported in principle across Craven’s smaller market towns and villages.

6.24    Historically, national and local policies have supported rural exception sites as sites providing 100% affordable units. However, within the current context of current reforms to the delivery of affordable housing and reductions in public finding, the National Planning Policy Framework now provides local planning authorities with the opportunity to consider allowing small amounts of market housing on exception sites to assist the delivery of schemes. Policy support for this has been included in the local plan on the basis that it is an exceptional approach designed to support and cross subsidise the delivery of affordable housing in the absence of sufficient public subsidy through registered providers.

6.25    Proposals for exception sites which seek to include an element of market housing should be accompanied by a detailed financial appraisal to justify the need to include market housing and to demonstrate that the number of market homes proposed is the minimum required to deliver an appropriate mix of affordable homes whilst ensuring viability of the scheme. Furthermore, no more than 30% of the units in a scheme should be for market housing. Any higher percentage of market housing would undermine the integrity of these sites being ‘exception’ sites where housing is not normally permitted. The Council will publish additional practical guidance on the provision of affordable housing, including on rural exception sites, in the form of a supplementary planning document (SPD).

POLICY H2: AFFORDABLE HOUSING

a)   Affordable housing will be provided as part of general market housing developments, as follows:

I.   On greenfield sites, developments of 11 dwellings or more, and developments with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000 sqm will provide not less than 30% of new dwellings as affordable housing. In designated rural areas, developments on greenfield sites of 6 to 10 dwellings, will be required to make an equivalent financial contribution for affordable housing.

II   On brownfield sites, developments of 11 dwellings or more, and developments with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000sqm will provide not less than 25% of new dwellings as affordable housing. In designated rural areas, developments on brownfield sites of 6 to 10 dwellings will be required to make an equivalent financial contribution for affordable housing.

Specialist Housing for Older People

b)   Affordable housing will be provided as part of specialist housing developments for older people where falling within Use Class C3 as follows:

Age Restricted/Sheltered Housing

I.        On greenfield sites, developments of Age Restricted/Sheltered Housing or similar housing included in Policy H1, will provide not        less than 30% new dwellings as affordable housing;

II.    On brownfield sites, developments of Age Restricted/Sheltered Housing or similar housing included in Policy H1, will provide not less than 25% of new dwellings as affordable housing;

Assisted Living/Extra Care Housing

III.   On greenfield sites developments of Assisted Living/Extra Care Housing, or similar housing included in Policy H1, will provide not less than 12% of new dwellings as affordable housing.

IV. On brownfield sites developments of Assisted Living/Extra Care Housing or similar housing included in Policy H1, will provide not less than 7% of new dwellings as affordable housing.

c)   Providing an off-site contribution in lieu of an on-site contribution will only be supported where there are clear advantages or overriding reasons for doing so and the off-site contribution is preferable in terms of achieving housing and planning objectives and will contribute to the objective of creating mixed and balanced communities. In these circumstances, proposals will be expected to make a financial contribution equivalent to the on-site provision.

d)   Development proposals that seek to provide a lower level of affordable housing contribution, either on or off site, will not be acceptable unless it can be clearly demonstrated that exceptional circumstances exist which justify a reduced affordable housing contribution. In such exceptional circumstances, the local planning authority will look to maximise provision of affordable housing having regard to the circumstances of individual sites and scheme viability. Developers will be expected to conduct negotiations on a transparent and ‘open book’ basis. The local planning authority will apply vacant building credit in all appropriate circumstances, in accordance with the NPPF and the PPG and will reduce on-site and/or financial contributions accordingly.

e)    Affordable housing will also be provided by:

I.   supporting registered providers in bringing forward developments of 100% affordable housing within Tiers 1 to 5 of the spatial strategy, in accordance with Policy SP4;

II.  supporting in principle, the release of rural exception sites and

III. supporting registered providers in the repair, alteration and improvement of the existing affordable housing stock and the re-use of empty homes.

f)     The size, type and tenure of affordable units will be expected to reflect the most up-to-date evidence of affordable housing needs, from the Council’s latest Strategic Housing Market Assessment and any other robust and up to date evidence of local housing need. Affordable housing contributions should comprise either social or affordable rent tenures as well as intermediate tenure types. The 2017 Craven District Strategic Housing Market Assessment indicates that this currently should be between 15% to 25% intermediate types and 75% to 85% social or affordable rent tenures.

g)   Affordable housing contributions will be sought from proposed developments that are phased or are brought forward in a piecemeal fashion and where the total combined, or ‘holistic’ development exceeds the relevant threshold.

h)   The provision of affordable housing will be secured via a planning obligation (section 106 agreement). The obligation will seek to ensure that affordable dwellings are maintained in perpetuity for households in affordable housing need or that the affordable housing subsidy is recycled.

Rural exception sites

i)   Proposals for 100% affordable housing developments outside the main built up area of Tiers 2 to 5 settlements will be supported where:

I.   the development will help to meet but not exceed proven need in the parish or a combination of parishes, as appropriate; and

II.  the site is small and is physically and visually well related to the settlement; and

III. provision is made for the affordable units to be maintained in perpetuity for households in affordable housing need or for the affordable housing subsidy to be recycled.

j)   Market housing on proposed rural exception sites will only be allowed where it can be demonstrated that:

I.   the market housing is essential to enable the delivery of the affordable housing by a registered provider and delivery of an appropriate mix of affordable dwelling types and tenures to reflect need in the local area; and

II.  the proposed market dwellings represent no more than 30% of the total number of dwellings proposed on the site and are the minimum number required to achieve viability in the absence of any public subsidy or with reduced public subsidy, and

III.  the developer has submitted an ‘open book’ viability assessment which shows that:

i) aspirational land values have not been used to justify a higher proportion of market value units, and

ii) viability has been based on reasonable land values for a rural exception site.

GYPSIES, TRAVELLERS, SHOWMEN AND ROMA

6.26    The local plan aims to address the local housing requirements of all communities, including Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma who live in or travel through the plan area. In doing so, the local plan will contribute to the overarching national aim of ensuring fair and equal treatment for travellers, in a way that facilitates their traditional way of life, whilst respecting the interests of settled communities.

6.27    Policy H3 aims to maintain an adequate supply of sites to meet the housing requirements of Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma within Craven through safeguarding existing supply and supporting extensions to existing sites or new sites to meet newly arising need.

6.28    The District Council has a duty to provide official sites to accommodate Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma. An independent traveller needs survey and report was published in February 2013 followed by a technical note relating to Gypsy and Traveller Household Formation and Growth Rates in March 2015. This evidence is supplemented by information gathered by the Council on a regular basis, including the department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG) Bi-annual Caravan Count and the Council’s Environmental Services & Housing Records of Unauthorised Encampments.  

6.29    The evidence concludes that there is no evidence of a requirement for a public site in Craven and found no evidence of any deficiencies in service provision for any of the Gypsy & Traveller families within Craven. The report also concluded that there is no evidence of a requirement for any extra provision for showpeople throughout Craven. It is not proposed in the local plan therefore to make a specific allocation of land for a public site for the Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma community and it is considered that a criteria based policy is appropriate to deal with any unforeseen private need arising during the plan period.

6.30    There are traditional, informal stopping-off points used by travellers en-route to and from the Appleby Horse Fair (held during the first week of June), which provide for the temporary needs of gypsies and travellers passing through the area. Whilst the current evidence concludes that more formal arrangements—such as the development of permanent transit sites—are unlikely to be justified or necessary, there may be opportunities for travellers, the district council and parish councils to collaborate on better management of temporary stop off sites. Alternatively, local communities may wish to consider the opportunities offered by neighbourhood planning, including the possibility of designating land and setting local policies for a transit site within a Neighbourhood Plan.

6.31    Policy H3 addresses specific design principles that should be met by all new sites.   Achieving good quality design is central to government guidance for housing and this applies equally to accommodation for Gypsy, Travellers, Showmen and Roma. The Government has published good practice guidance relating to the design of Gypsy and Traveller pitches (Designing Gypsy and Traveller Sites – Good Practice Guide or its replacement) which should be considered by applicants when applying for planning permission or any subsequent or relevant guidance.

6.32    Whilst the existing housing requirements of Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma are currently being met on privately owned sites, this could change over time and the need to identify and allocate new sites could arise in the future. Therefore, the existing and future housing requirements of this community will be kept under review using the best and most up-to-date evidence available.

POLICY H3: GYPSIES, TRAVELLERS, SHOWMEN AND ROMA

The housing requirements of Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma will be met by maintaining an adequate supply of private sites to occupy, in line with current evidence of existing and future need.

Development of a site within the existing established supply of private sites for any other purpose will be refused, unless:

a)   Current evidence shows that the site is not needed; or

b)  The development proposal makes provision for an equivalent replacement site of an equal or better standard.

Extensions to existing private sites or entirely new private sites (including temporary, permanent or transit sites) will be supported to meet existing need and where there is evidence of newly arising need, and where:

c)  Occupiers of the site would have access to employment, local services and facilities, including public transport, shops, schools and health care provision;

d)  The site is of sufficient size to provide a good residential environment for future occupiers, in terms of design, layout, spacing, provision of facilities, and amenity space; has good and safe access to the public highway and adequate space within the site for the parking and turning of vehicles;

e)  The site provides opportunities to reflect traditional lifestyles i.e., allowing travellers to live and work from the same location, contributing to sustainability;

f)   The site is or can be connected to all necessary utilities and infrastructure including mains water, electricity supply, drainage, sanitation and provision is made for the screened storage and collection of refuse, including recyclable materials;

g)     The proposal and neighbouring land uses can satisfactorily co-exist and the proposal relates well in scale and location to existing neighbouring occupiers;

h)     Occupiers of the site and their belongings are not exposed to unacceptable environmental conditions including flood risk; and

i)    Any potential impacts on the environment can be avoided or adequately mitigated and have regard to the requirements relating to   protecting the natural and built environment set out in other relevant local plan policies.

SECTION 7: ECONOMY

EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND SAFEGUARDING EMPLOYMENT AREAS

7.1       The local plan sets out a strategy for delivering sustainable forms of development across Craven. In particular, Policy SP2 provides an overview of the overall approach taken with regard to securing and facilitating economic growth in Craven over the period to 2032. Policy SP2 identifies land requirements to accommodate future growth in particular. That is not to say that the needs of current employers and businesses are ignored. Providing a policy context that supports economic growth, retention of sites and premises, and promotes economic diversity are key components of the local plan. Policies EC1 and EC2 provide such a context, particularly for uses that fall within ‘B’ classes of the Use Classes Order.

7.2       The NPPF is clear in that planning policy should not impede economic development/employment uses. Paragraphs 18-22 are of particular significance and set out the need to plan proactively to meet development needs, whilst avoiding long term protection of allocated sites where there is no prospect of them coming forward for development. Paragraph 28 of the NPPF is also applicable to rural areas in that it provides a positive context that seeks to facilitate rural economic prosperity.

7.3       The Employment Land Review (March 2017) provides further context. This shows that, in Craven, there is a high level of economic activity, and low levels of unemployment and deprivation. The study also shows however that wages are below average, and that Craven is a net exporter of labour. Providing a policy context that safeguards, supports and enhances economic activity is an important part of the local plan.

7.4       Policy EC1 sets out a positive context within which proposals for economic/employment uses are considered. The policy seeks to facilitate the delivery of economic development and employment proposals through a criteria based policy approach that enables the delivery of economic/employment related development in the right locations, within the context of Policy SP2 and the spatial strategy – Policies SP5 to SP11. As such economic/employment related development will be appropriately located to avoid emissions arising from industry and infrastructure affecting sensitive land uses including residential developments, hospitals, hotels, motels, hostels, caravan parks, schools, nursing homes, child care facilities, shopping centres, playgrounds, and some public buildings

7.5       It is fully recognised that some employment generating uses require specific locations within which to operate and would fall outside of land traditionally identified for employment uses. Policy EC1 allows for this in appropriate circumstances.

7.6       To retain a choice of employment sites and locations in Craven, where land and/or premises are in employment uses, policy sets out a presumption that these locations will be retained in employment generating uses. Policy EC2 sets out the approach to safeguarding employment land and premises. The policy articulates the presumption in favour of the retention of land and premises in employment uses. This is to ensure that there is adequate choice of sites available to accommodate a range of employment generating uses.

7.7       It is though, recognised that there will be circumstances where it will not always be appropriate or desirable to retain sites and premises in employment generating uses. For example, there may be ongoing amenity issues for occupiers of neighbouring properties from existing industrial uses that cannot be mitigated, or the road network or access serving the employment use may be unsuitable for the continued use of the site for employment uses. Such matters would need to be demonstrated as part of a planning application submission. Policy EC2 sets out circumstances where non employment generating uses on sites and premises currently in employment uses may be considered appropriate and/or acceptable.

7.8       The setting of a planning policy context that facilitates economic/employment growth, whilst also allowing for alternative uses in appropriate circumstances is a key tool in facilitating economic growth and achieving wider local plan objectives. It is within that context that the following policies EC1 and EC2 are set.

POLICY EC1: EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Proposals for employment/economic development in existing employment areas (Policy EC2), on land allocated for employment/mixed use (Policies SP5 to SP11), or within the main built up area of Tier 1 to 5 settlements, as defined in Policy SP4, will be supported subject to compliance with the following criteria:-

a)     The proposal will not give rise to adverse amenity effects on sensitive uses that cannot be mitigated adequately;

b)     Traffic generated as a result of the proposal being satisfactorily accommodated in the surrounding highway network;

c)     The proposal not adversely affecting the significance of natural environmental assets, designated heritage assets and open space provision and accords with the provisions of Policies ENV1, ENV2, ENV4, ENV5, ENV6, ENV7, ENV8, ENV10 and ENV11;

d)     The proposal being adequately served by communications infrastructure i.e. broadband, where possible; and

e)     The proposal being of a design that accords with the provisions of Policy ENV3.

f)      The proposal accords with any other relevant policies in the local plan

Elsewhere proposals for employment/economic development will be supported where they meet criteria a) to f) above and it can be clearly demonstrated that:-

g)     There are no allocated sites or existing employment areas available in the  settlement or the nearest Tier 1 to Tier 4 settlement that could accommodate the proposal; or

h)    The proposed activity requires a specific location in which to operate adequately; or

i)      The proposal will help deliver specific aims and objectives of the York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Local Economic Partnership (LEP) or the Leeds City Region LEP; or

j)     The proposal will benefit the rural economy in accordance with Policy EC3.

POLICY EC2: SAFEGUARDING EXISTING EMPLOYMENT AREAS

In order to ensure that there is an adequate supply of employment locations in Craven for ‘B’ Class Uses, sites currently in ‘B’ class uses and sites identified on the policies inset map as: existing sites and premises in ‘B’ Class use in existing employment areas, and: sites with extant commitments for ‘B’ Class Use, will be safeguarded from non ‘B’ Class uses unless:-

a)         The development proposal makes equivalent compensatory provision of employment land/premises to an equivalent or better standard; or

b)        It is demonstrated that there is no reasonable prospect of the site being retained, reused or redeveloped for a ‘B’ Class employment generating use; and

c)         The proposed new use is compatible with surrounding uses, and will not result in adverse effects to new and existing occupiers that cannot be adequately mitigated.

Existing live/work units in the plan area will be safeguarded from changes to non-employment uses unless proposals meet the requirements of criterion f) of Policy EC3: Rural Economy.

Broughton Hall Estate and Business Park provides opportunities for both ‘B’ Class employment and tourism development. Existing ‘B’ Class employment uses in this location will be safeguarded under this policy and proposals for tourism development will be supported, in principle, in accordance with Policy EC4: Tourism.

RURAL ECONOMY

7.9       The local economy reaches beyond Craven’s towns and their industrial estates—extending into the countryside and even the remotest of rural locations. Farming, industry, tourism, culture, transportation, shops, pubs, community services, small businesses, self-employment and so on, all contribute to a rural economy that helps to maintain the vitality and viability of the countryside, the quality of its landscapes and villages, and the sustainability of rural life. The contribution traditional farming and agricultural practices have made and continue to make to the rural economy of Craven is recognised. This policy aims to support all types of economic activity that contribute to Craven’s rural economy, provided they meet the requirements of Policy EC3.

7.10    Economic activity in rural areas has many things in common with economic activity in towns or anywhere else, but the opportunities available, the barriers encountered and the concerns of those involved can be quite different. Rural locations can provide their own unique type of business opportunities, but they can impose limitations and restrictions, too, including the potential negative impact of development on the character of the countryside, the relatively poor transport links and broadband connections available in some locations.   Opportunities currently exist to deal with the lack of broadband through the Superfast North Yorkshire Broadband Project (SFNY). The Super-Fast North Yorkshire Broadband Project has been completed which brings superfast broadband to 89% of the county’s homes and businesses. SFNY is currently delivering Phase 3 to further extend superfast coverage. This will allow businesses to grow in rural locations throughout Craven.

7.11    The following policy aims to acknowledge the rural situation and its particular set of circumstances. It takes a positive stance and looks to encourage growth in the rural economy by supporting proposals for sustainable development, by broadening the scope for and increasing the variety and diversity of economic activity in rural areas, and by ‘not getting in the way’ of enterprise and innovation that offers economic, environmental, cultural and social benefits to local communities. The policy is intended to be flexible and adaptable so that it can respond to different needs within the rural economy, new opportunities that may arise in the future and changes in the rural economy over time.

7.12    New opportunities are likely to arise in farming, land management and support services, and in the use of farmland and buildings for things other than agriculture, for example green technology, renewable and low-carbon energy, flood management and related areas of research are potential areas of growth. Sustainable tourism projects will continue to be important; there may be further opportunities for combined living and working in rural areas; and local firms will wish to grow and expand. This policy supports the rural economy by recognising the contribution that existing live/work units make to the rural economy.  

7.13    For the purposes of Policy EC3, live/work units are defined as buildings of sufficient size to accommodate a genuine business use and that any residential accommodation will be ancillary to that use. Proposals for substantial residential accommodation with a token area given over to business use will be considered to be residential development and be subject to the requirements of Policy SP4 and will therefore fall outside the scope of Policy EC3. The proposal must relate to an employment use which is designed so that it can be used independently of the dwelling space (so that employment potential is not restricted only to occupants of the dwelling space). The occupancy of the living space will be restricted to a person directly involved with the business being operated. The exact ratio of employment to residential space and restrictions relating to the occupancy of the living space will be specified by conditions attached to any planning permission as appropriate. The continued use of existing live/work units will therefore be supported. The conversion of existing live/work units to other uses will be supported provided it can be demonstrated, through robust marketing evidence, that the existing live/work unit is no longer required or that there is no reasonable prospect of it being used for its intended purpose in the future. Marketing evidence must substantiate a robust conclusion that every reasonable attempt has been made to secure a suitable business reuse, that the building is no longer suitable for commercial activity or that it is no longer required by other occupiers.

7.14    Craven’s landscape, heritage, culture, quality of life and overall success depend on a living and working countryside, and on economic development that preserves and enhances these qualities, whilst bringing greater prosperity to local communities.

POLICY EC3: RURAL ECONOMY

Craven’s rural economy will be supported, so that it may grow and diversify in a sustainable way to provide long term economic, environmental and social benefits for local communities. This will be achieved in the following ways:

a) Enabling enterprise, welcoming innovation and supporting economic development proposals that will benefit the local economy, environment and quality of life, including culture and community proposals;

b)   Recognising opportunities to use farmland and farm buildings in new and different ways to support individual farm businesses and to diversify the wider rural economy;

c)   Helping existing and new rural businesses, including tourism related businesses to succeed, grow and expand, by working with them co-operatively and proactively, so that development proposals can be supported wherever possible;

d)   Enabling farm, forestry and other land-based businesses to build the new and replacement buildings and infrastructure they need to function efficiently, including dwellings where they are fully justified on functional and financial grounds;

e)   Acknowledging the potential social, economic, environmental benefits of reusing existing buildings by supporting proposals for their conversion, including to employment use or live/work units, providing opportunities for people to live and work locally.

f)   Supporting the continued use of existing live/work units for the valuable contribution they make to the rural economy. The conversion of existing live/work units to other uses will be supported provided it can be demonstrated that there is no reasonable prospect of the live/work unit being re-used.

Proposals of the type described above will be supported provided they accord with all relevant local plan policies and any relevant neighbourhood plan policies, and will help to achieve sustainable development.

TOURISM

7.15    Tourism is the broad term applied to the range of activities, businesses and services that people enjoy whilst visiting Craven. The economy that has built up around tourism is now a substantial and important part of the area’s overall economy and quality of life.

7.16    The boost that tourism and visitors provide is seen in the success of Craven’s market towns as local places for shopping, culture, leisure and business. Tourism also helps in the understanding and appreciation of Craven’s natural environment, heritage and culture, which, in turn, helps to conserve these resources for future generations. Supporting sustainable tourism is therefore an important aim of the local plan and will help to secure a thriving economy, vibrant town-centres, cultural experiences, active recreation, rich biodiversity, beautiful landscapes and well-preserved historic places, which will be both attractive to visitors and beneficial to local communities.

Destinations, visitor accommodation and activities

7.17    The local plan aims to support both established and aspiring tourist destinations that wish to develop and become better and more successful. Those wishing to offer a wider choice of accommodation or activities, which create appeal, interest and enjoyment for visitors, will be supported; and proposals to develop new ideas and opportunities, in a sustainable way, will be encouraged.

Synergies, commitments and key locations

7.18    Tourism businesses may combine well with other businesses in non-tourism sectors. Both can provide a draw, add interest and vitality, and provide facilities and services that may be of wider appeal beyond their respective customer base. Similarly, individual businesses may benefit from integrating tourism and other sectors within their own hybrid operation. The local plan therefore recognises and supports opportunities to secure knock-on benefits from locating tourism and other forms of business together — this is referred to as “synergies of co-location”.

7.19    In addition to giving broad encouragement and support to sustainable tourism across the plan area, the local plan also establishes two specific tourism designations: a Tourism Development Commitment and Key Locations for Tourism Development. Land designated as a Tourism Development Commitment already benefits from planning permission and is described in paragraph 7.20.   The eight Key Locations, which are described in paragraphs 7.21 to 7.35, offer particularly good opportunities for sustainable tourism and for harnessing synergies of co-location.

7.20    Tourism Development Commitment. Land designated as the Tourism Development Commitment is located to the west of Hellifield and is outlined by a red dashed line in Diagram EC4B. This land benefits from extant planning permission for construction of a rural environmental centre comprising tourism, exhibition, training, equestrian and livestock buildings, a hotel and nature conservation area[47]. However, the extent of operational development (buildings etc.) allowed by the planning permission is limited to three areas within the red dashed line and identified by grey hatching in the diagram, with most of the land remaining as fields, a nature conservation area, open public space and a grass car park. Designation of the Tourism Development Commitment recognises the extent of operational development already approved and related Policy EC4B sets out the Council’s approach to proposals for alternative development, which may come forward in the future. Such proposals will be supported, in principle, provided that they promote sustainable tourism and fully address important matters of landscape, heritage, local character and appearance, archaeology, biodiversity, local green space and public rights of way, in accordance with local plan Policies ENV1, ENV2, ENV3, ENV4, ENV10 and ENV12.

7.21    Bolton Abbey/Bolton Abbey Station. Bolton Abbey is a place of multiple significances. Bolton Priory has historical value as an Augustinian foundation dating back to 1151, built and altered over time which has the potential to yield evidence about past human activity. It also has high aesthetic value as a piece of architectural design: the ruined east end is of exceptional quality and a rare example in Yorkshire of late C14 architecture at its most refined. However, it is the wider relationship of the Priory with its landscape setting that gives this place its greatest significance. Together they form a famous landscape, an icon of the Picturesque and Romantic Movements of the latter part of the 18th and into the 19th centuries, which valued the Priory ruins in its landscape setting for its fortuitous aesthetic effect. The association of Bolton Abbey with the Romantic Movement and the area’s later accessibility to major populations in the industrial centres of the West Riding led to the development of the site as a tourist destination. The railway arrived at Bolton Abbey Station in 1888. On one August Bank Holiday in the 1890s the railway brought over 40,000 people to Bolton Abbey. The site became and remains a popular destination for tourists, generating a strong communal value expressed in the continuing appreciation by the public for this place, which is one of the most visited sites in Yorkshire and plays a significant role as a gateway to the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

7.22    Bolton Abbey is also a Tier 4b settlement (villages with basic services bisected by Yorkshire Dales National Park boundary) within the Local Plan’s Spatial Hierarchy. It is similarly recognised as a service village in the adopted Yorkshire Dales Local Plan (2016).   It comprises land at Bolton Abbey village and Bolton Bridge, and provides a range of services to its community and those of smaller related settlements nearby in the National Park.

7.23    However, several issues at the Bolton Abbey Core Visitor Area[48] (all of which is owned by the Bolton Abbey Estate) diminish both the visitor offer concerned and the ability of the Bolton Abbey Estate to support its ongoing programme of environmental management and architectural conservation. The Bolton Abbey Estate has identified these issues as follows: no play facilities for children of different age groups; no sense of arrival; vulnerability of visitor operations to bad weather and school holidays; little secondary spend by visitors; major planning constraints; high maintenance costs; increased competition; services at risk; staffing problems due to high house prices; very limited choice of visitor accommodation in the immediate area.

7.24    In seeking to address these issues, the Bolton Abbey Estate has identified eight potential development zones within the Core Visitor Area, two of which are located partly within the Craven Local Plan area at Bolton Abbey and Bolton Bridge.   The Bolton Abbey Estate has liaised with local and external stakeholders on their proposals for mixed use tourism led development including the District Council, the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority, and Historic England (which supports in principle the provision of development of an appropriate scale, intensity and mix of uses in Bolton Abbey village, Bolton Bridge and other parts of the Core Visitor Area in the long term).

7.25    The Bolton Abbey Estate proposals refer mainly to tourism-led development to support and diversify visitor operations at Bolton Abbey, improving cycling and walking infrastructure and providing facilities such as a farm shop and eating / drinking establishments, which will also benefit the local community. In addition, the Bolton Abbey Estate wishes to pursue other forms of development to accord with policies elsewhere in the Local Plan, including for example small scale housing development and rural office development.

7.26    Tourism led mixed use development at Bolton Abbey has the potential to boost the tourism economy of the area and achieve the synergies of co-location with other business and commercial development to provide for significant high value employment opportunities in accordance with Policy EC4 of the Local Plan, but this must be achieved without harm to the important and significant historic, ecological and landscape assets of this special place.

7.27    However, the Council has not allocated specific sites at Bolton Abbey for two reasons.   Firstly, the Council considers that a comprehensive strategy and development masterplan must be prepared for the area which: takes into account the heritage, ecology and landscape sensitivity of the area; considers the fact that the National Park boundary runs through Bolton Abbey village and Bolton Bridge; involves Historic England, the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority, Natural England, the District Council and other stakeholders as appropriate. Secondly, it considers that there is a need to establish the potential impact of detailed proposals (for uses such as a play barn, farm shop, play area, pub, housing, visitor accommodation, cycling hub, offices and biomass boiler) before confirming the use of land for a particular purpose.

7.28    The local plan therefore includes a related policy to EC4 (EC4A), to support sensitive and sustainable tourism-led, mixed-use development at Bolton Abbey, in the general locations identified at Bolton Abbey and Bolton Bridge (see Policies Inset Map No.24), subject to a comprehensive strategy and Masterplan for the Core Visitor Area to the satisfaction of itself and the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority (as local planning authorities) and in consultation with other key stakeholders, including, Historic England, Natural England and the Environment Agency.   Development proposals will be expected to accord with the principles of the Masterplan and development proposals which would prejudice the delivery of the related strategy for the Core Visitor Area will not be permitted.

7.29    Broughton Hall Estate. This is a key location that has successfully integrated tourism, business, heritage and landscape over many years – tapping in to the synergies of co-location and creating a place of unique character and appeal. This achievement and the location’s potential for continued sustainable growth and enhancement are recognised in its designation.

7.30    Ingleton – viaduct area. Ingleton’s grade II listed former railway viaduct is a significant heritage asset, which contributes to the character and appearance of the adjoining conservation area. At present, the viaduct is inaccessible, but has the potential to become an elevated public walkway and the centrepiece of wider proposals to enhance the local tourist economy and historic environment.

7.31    Gargrave – canal area. The Leeds & Liverpool Canal is a significant heritage asset and its moorings, towpath and grade II listed bridges and locks add to Gargrave’s attractiveness to visitors. Proposals that would help to enhance the canal’s significance and attractiveness, its role in the local economy and the range of canal-side facilities currently on offer will be supported in principle.

7.32    Skipton – canal and railway station area. Skipton’s busy and popular grade II listed railway station is an important gateway to the town, but its facilities, surroundings, accessibility and relationship to the town centre could be improved. The Leeds & Liverpool Canal, which is just a short walk to the north, is a significant heritage asset within the Skipton Conservation Area and is popular for its moorings and events. The canal towpath also provides an attractive pedestrian and cycle route to the town centre, Aireville Park and beyond. This part of the town has been designated as a key location to highlight the area’s potential and to encourage proposals that will support the local economy, improve accessibility, enhance the visitor experience, conserve heritage assets and create a better townscape.

7.33    Bentham – railway station area. High Bentham has a significant number of undesignated heritage assets and the potential for conservation area designation. Its attractiveness as a tourist destination and gateway to the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty are reinforced by its railway station on the “Little North Western” line, which is supported by a community rail partnership. The station is located in an area of town where space and opportunities for growth are less constrained than in the historic and tightly built centre immediately to the north. This greater potential is recognised in the area’s designation as a key location and proposals will be supported, in principle, where they would enhance the town’s attractiveness to visitors, support the local economy and conserve heritage assets.

7.34    Hellifield – railway station area. The grade II listed Hellifield Station marks the southernmost extent of the Settle-Carlisle Conservation Area, which follows the route of the popular, scenic and historic railway. The Yorkshire Dales National Park is to the immediate northeast, the Tourism Development Commitment is to the southwest and areas around the station buildings are mainly operational land. In this key location, appropriate proposals to develop facilities and services and to enhance linkages and relationships with the surrounding area will be supported in principle.

7.35    Embsay – railway station area. The Embsay and Bolton Abbey Steam Railway intends to extend its operations to Skipton railway station where former platforms 5 and 6 would be brought back into use. This and other appropriate enhancements to services and facilities could make a significant contribution to sustainable growth in tourism at each of the three key locations involved – Embsay, Bolton Abbey and Skipton – and will be supported in principle.

Rural and countryside areas

7.36    Tourism naturally extends beyond Craven’s main settlements and the local plan therefore supports sustainable tourism in more remote locations — to do otherwise would be to unfairly restrict economic, environmental and social opportunities, and to hinder growth and diversity within the rural economy. Proposals for tourism development that will result in improved biodiversity and green infrastructure, and better facilities for rural communities, will be particularly welcomed. Wildlife activities or ‘Nature Tourism’ will be encouraged and supported, in principle, in both rural and urban areas.

Community benefits

7.37    A sustainable approach to growth in tourism will ensure that benefits to the economy, environment and quality of life are felt as broadly as possible, including within local communities. Part of this will be to attach appropriate community use agreements to planning permissions for tourism development, where this will improve the availability of community facilities in the local area. Communities will also be supported in bringing forward their own sustainable tourism projects through neighbourhood planning.

7.38    Local strategies and action plans

         Local business organisations, such as Chambers of Trade and Business Improvement Districts (BID), are active in promoting business, services and activities in their areas. Supporting tourism is a vital component of their work and this is reflected in strategies and action plans being pursued across the district[49]. Local business organisations will therefore be supported in their efforts to promote sustainable tourism.

Public transport, walking and cycling

7.39    The local plan aims to connect tourism development to the public transport network and to promote walking and cycling, in the interests of sustainability, health and well-being. Several key locations and the tourism development commitment have been identified as offering particular opportunities to further these aims. Policy SP2: Economic Activity and Business Growth supports enhanced connections across the public transport network, including the Skipton to Colne railway line, which offers opportunities to promote sustainable travel to Craven destinations and, therefore, sustainable tourism.

Sustainable development

7.40    The local plan’s general support for tourism does not mean support for any tourism-related development proposal that may come forward. Individual proposals will need to accord with other relevant local plan polices, promote relevant plan objectives and achieve sustainable development overall.          

POLICY EC4: TOURISM

Tourism will grow in a sustainable way, so that it helps to improve the economy, environment and quality of life. Such growth will be achieved by:

a) Enabling established destinations to become even better through the development of new and improved facilities;

b) Helping up-and-coming destinations to establish themselves and become successful;

c) Recognising opportunities to bring tourism into new areas that have untapped potential, including new types of activity and new destinations;

d) Acknowledging the range of sporting, recreational, cultural, arts, wildlife and leisurely activities that people may wish to engage in as tourists;

e) Ensuring that tourism development provides easy access to the network of public transport services, footpaths and cycle routes (including canal towpaths) in the area and, wherever possible, secures the improvement and expansion of that network;

f) Realising opportunities, where they arise, to secure additional knock-on benefits from placing tourism development and other forms of business and commercial development together in the same location, thereby achieving synergies of co-location;

g) Supporting, in principle, proposals for tourism development and for achieving synergies of co-location, in the following key locations for tourism development identified on the policies map;

Bolton Abbey/Bolton Abbey Railway Station

Broughton Hall Estate

Ingleton – viaduct area

Gargrave – canal area

Skipton – canal and railway station area

Bentham – railway station area

Hellifield – railway station area

Embsay – railway station area

h) Ensuring that the benefits of tourism growth – to the economy, environment and quality of life – are felt as broadly as possible within local communities;

i) Securing appropriate community use of private facilities provided as part of tourism developments, including sports, leisure, recreational and cultural and arts facilities, shops and open spaces;

j) Encouraging and supporting communities and business organisations to promote sustainable tourism through Neighbourhood Plans and other local initiatives;

Individual proposals that accord with the Council’s general approach set out in parts a) to j) above must also accord with all other relevant local plan polices and any relevant neighbourhood plan policies and must help to achieve sustainable development overall.

POLICY EC4A: TOURISM–LED DEVELOPMENT AT BOLTON ABBEY

The provision of sensitive and sustainable tourism-led, mixed-use development at Bolton Abbey will be supported within the Core Visitor Area indicated on the Policies Map (Inset Map No.24).

In particular, within the Core Visitor Area, the following mix of uses will be supported in principle subject to their scale, design, location, inter-relationships and cumulative impact upon the historic environment, ecology, flood risk and landscape character being acceptable:

·      Tourism facilities, including but not limited to, farm shop, play barn and eating/drinking establishments;

·      New build visitor accommodation;

·      New infrastructure necessary to promote and improve cycling and walking;

·      Limited residential development to provide staff accommodation and market housing, which conforms to policies elsewhere in the Local Plan;

·      Limited commercial development, which conforms to policies elsewhere in the Local Plan.

Larger scale development will be restricted to the following general locations indicated on the Policies Map (Inset Map No. 24):

·      Land including and surrounding the main village car park at Bolton Abbey village

·      Land to the north-north-west of the B6160 / A59 roundabout at Bolton Bridge

·      Land north of the highway spur (part of former A59) to the west of the B6160 at Bolton Bridge

A comprehensive strategy and Masterplan for the Core Visitor Area, including detailed development and design principles and a Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment, shall be produced to the satisfaction of the local planning authorities in consultation with key stakeholders, including Historic England, Natural England and the Environment Agency. Development proposals will be expected to accord with the principles of the Masterplan and developments which would prejudice the delivery of the related strategy for the Core Visitor Area will not be permitted.

POLICY EC4B: TOURISM DEVELOPMENT COMMITMENT AT HELLIFIELD

Alternative sustainable tourism development will be supported on land at Hellifield identified as grey hatching on Diagram EC4B, provided that the following requirements are met:

I) Conservation of the landscape and of the setting and special qualities of the Yorkshire Dales National Park

II) Conservation of heritage assets, including archaeological remains, the Long Preston Conservation Area and the Settle-Carlisle Conservation Area

III) Conservation of biodiversity value

IV) Preservation or enhancement of Local Green Space, including its open character, local significance and value to the community

V) Preservation and enhancement of the existing public rights of way network

VI) Preservation or enhancement of the character and appearance of the local area.

Proposals that include the development of non-designated land (shown in white on Diagram EC4B) for the purposes of sustainable tourism will be supported in principle, provided that:

i) the land adjoins an area identified by grey hatching on the Policies Map and Diagram EC4B; and

ii) the amount of any such land is limited in scale compared to the amount of adjoining land identified by grey hatching; and

iii) the proposal meets the requirements of I) to VI) above.

Individual proposals that accord with the Council’s approach set out above must also accord with all other relevant local plan policies and any relevant neighbourhood plan policies.

Diagram EC4B - Tourism Development Commitment

RETAIL AND TOWN CENTRES

Town Centres in Craven

7.41    The historic character of market towns and villages in Craven present an attractive setting for retailing, business, commercial activity, leisure, culture and recreation that reinforces a competitive advantage, whilst building relationships with other centres in wider retail networks that lie beyond (but include) Craven. Recent experience and change highlights that the future context for retailing in town centres will be very different and centres will need to adapt to the changing policy and economic landscape. For Craven, historic shopping areas, streets and spaces are intertwined with the health and future trajectory of retail and commercial activities in market town and village centres.

7.42    In terms of retailing activity, the Retail and Leisure study (2016) identifies that in Craven, capacity for comparison retailing exists in all centres for the period to 2032 which could assist in clawing back potential expenditure to Craven, which otherwise would be leaked to centres outside of the area. The study also shows capacity for convenience retailing in Craven (particularly in Skipton) for the period to 2032, except for Settle. In Settle the study identifies no capacity for convenience retailing in the town for the period to 2032. Supporting and enhancing the health and vitality of centres is an important factor in supporting communities.

7.43    Our centres are part of local community identity and strong business identities. In particular, continued multiple town centre retail investment close to prime pitches in Skipton but with opportunities for lower rents away from primary frontage areas are likely to be appealing to independent retailers as a trade-off for lower footfall.

Craven Retail Hierarchy

7.44    The retail hierarchy for Craven is set out at Policy EC5 and centres in it will be resilient to, and not harmed by, retail and indoor leisure development proposals elsewhere. Out of centre proposals in Craven that are larger than the thresholds set out in Policy EC5 will be required to demonstrate the degree of impact on the centres. This may include addressing impact on more than one of the centres depending on the location, scale and nature of the proposal. The scope and nature of an impact assessment will be determined at the time of application.

7.45    The hierarchy of retail centres accords with their size, function and capacity. Centres within the hierarchy may fall within different retail networks, which extend beyond the plan area.

7.46    The following retail hierarchy statements consider the role of centres identified in the retail hierarchy and links between them or the purpose of the hierarchy and levels within the hierarchy.

7.47    Level 1 - Skipton Town Centre

  • The primary retail location for Craven that is also attractive to visitors from outside the district, and as a gateway to the Yorkshire Dales; 
  • Limited current available capacity to accommodate additional growth; 
  • Historic townscape and dense residential and rural greenspace surroundings; 
  • Attractive natural and historic waterside environments within the town centre.

7.48    Level 2 - Settle Town Centre

  • A secondary retail location for Craven that serves primarily the immediate hinterland whilst also acting as a gateway to the Yorkshire Dales; 
  • The compact 17th century core is centred on the market square around the Town Hall and the Shambles and is surrounded by narrow lanes and backyards leading off Kirkgate, Duke Street and Constitution Hill (source: parish profile); 
  • Located in the northeast of the compact town beneath limestone crags of the adjacent Yorkshire Dales National Park.

7.49    Level 3 - Bentham Town Centre

  • A local centre that serves primarily the day to day needs of residents whilst also offering a number of higher order services that serves a wider hinterland. 
  • A working town feel with an auction market within the town centre and manufacturing plants on the fringe of the town centre.

7.50    Level 3 - Main Street, Cross Hills

  • A local centre that serves primarily the day to day needs of residents whilst also offering a number of higher order services; 
  • The location of the centre astride the A6068, a well trafficked thoroughfare, detracts from the attractiveness of Cross Hills as a destination retail centre serving a greater than the day to day retail needs of residents.

7.51    Level 4 – Ingleton

  • A local centre that serves primarily the day to day needs of residents whilst also offering a number of services aimed at the tourist economy; 
  • There is an element of potentially competing convenience retail provision on the A65 New Road.

Challenges and Opportunities

7.52    The assessment of the key characteristics of each centre in the retail hierarchy presents a number of challenges to their future health and vitality. Arising from this, there are also opportunities for enhancement and to build upon/create the competitive advantages of the centres in question. These are summarised in Tables 5 and 6 below:

Table 5 - Key Settlement Specific Challenges

 

Historic and dense layout limitations to   continuous / circular high footfall routes

Competing retail development along nearby main through A road

Lack of available town centre / edge of centre sites for new build development

Historic buildings perceived as obsolete for some town centre uses

Environmental quality suffers from traffic movements and road layout

Skipton

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Settle

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Bentham

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Cross Hills

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Ingleton

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Table 6 -Key Settlement Specific Opportunities / Competitive Advantages

 

Historic waterside recreation interactions with shopping areas

Extensive range of purposes for visiting or lingering  

Underexploited trans Pennine passing trade potential

Appealing physical place by look and feel (eg: intertwined historic streets)

Interesting diverse mix of uses on distinct streets encourages footfall

Skipton

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Settle

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Bentham

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Cross Hills

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Ingleton

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Approach to Retail and Town Centres in the Plan

7.53    The ultimate goal of the plan is to secure sustainable long term growth that responds to the distinct evolution and change of the retail economy. The centres in the retail hierarchy will be supported and enhanced by development which strengthens their resilience to economic, social and technological change. This will be achieved by a flexible and positive planning policy approach to development including hybrid use of premises within the parameters of sustaining a majority retail use of primary frontages and being in keeping with their scale, historic character and dense residential surroundings.

Skipton

7.54    The Retail and Leisure study confirms that Skipton is the primary retail centre in Craven, and this is reflected in being identified at tier 1 of the town centre hierarchy. The policy approach supports and seeks to secure more effective land use within Skipton in defined areas for change as set out at Policy SP5. This approach will meet short and long term requirements for convenience and comparison retail floor space growth thereby enhancing the retail offer in the town. In a changing retail economy these areas present particular advantages and opportunities. Elements and projects will enhance:

  • The perceived attractiveness of Skipton as a place in which to invest; 
  • Interactions with the market, public spaces, community events venues, waterside environments and a well balanced mix of diverse independent and multiple occupiers; 
  • Distinct retail, market, service, leisure, community, business, cultural, tourism and education functions that complement retail networks and promote customer choice, the range of purposes for using the centre and the experience of users;
  • Successful and innovative business environments embracing new technology; property market churn and choice; and innovative and hybrid use of historic and perceived obsolete buildings to secure their viable and sustainable future; 
  • Opportunities for social interaction including the inclusivity of the evening economy, cultural events, public seating provision and a broader leisure economy catering for growth in young family, one person and elderly users of the centres; 
  • The distinct balanced mix of main town centre uses at ground floor level along primary shopping frontage with the majority of each primary frontage section on the local plan maps being in retail use. 
  • Attractive accessibility to and from the town and between elements within the centres, particularly for the mobility impaired, older persons, young families, cyclists and public transport users; 
  • An attractive, green and secure pedestrian environment and public realm that provides legible continuous main footfall pedestrian routes around the centre connecting and supporting elements within the centre, in particular focal point / buildings and distinct geographic features, and interactions between them. 
  • Effective car parking and traffic management;

7.55    Recent development at the rear of Skipton Town Hall has addressed a need for modern units suitable for the needs of multiple retailers. However in Skipton, the forecast additional need for 2,441 sq. m net new convenience retail floor space and 3,291 sq. m net new comparison retail floor space to 2032 does not account for commitments or recent developments since the completion of the Retail and Leisure Study in 2016. This is explicitly referenced in the study and the assessed need should be viewed in this context. Residual need should be met first by those sites allocated under Policy SP5. The redevelopment of any car park areas in Skipton Town Centre area will need to consider whether it is appropriate to make compensatory provision for the potential loss of spaces as part of the proposal.

Elsewhere in Craven

7.56    Away from Skipton the Retail and Leisure study shows more limited capacity for retail development and this will primarily support service provision in the smaller market towns and villages; enable local people to meet their daily needs for shopping within walking distance of their homes, and meet demand for local produce. Notably the evidence shows no new capacity for convenience retailing in Settle for the period to 2032.

Town Centre Uses, Primary Shopping Frontages and the Role of Residential Development and Use in Town Centres

7.57    In line with the provisions of the NPPF, the policy approach taken in the plan supports and seeks to enhance the primarily retail function of town and settlement centres in Craven. This is achieved through the identification of primary shopping frontages in Skipton and wider town and settlement centres in Skipton, Settle, Bentham, Ingleton and Cross Hills which has been informed by evidence in the Retail and Leisure study. It is though, recognised that whilst the primary retail function of centres should be safeguarded, securing an appropriate balance of town centre uses including commercial, leisure, tourism, cultural, community and where appropriate residential uses is also an important factor in supporting and enhancing vitality in town centres in Craven.

7.58    In this regard residential use warrants particular comment. The policy approach seeks to secure and safeguard the retail, commercial and leisure functions of premises at ground floor level, particularly within primary shopping areas identified in the plan. However above ground floor level, the nature and character of centres in Craven means that residential uses could support and underpin retail, community and commercial activity at ground floor level. This is particularly the case in the smaller centres where the concept of ‘living above the shop’ can be attractive to business owners and operators. In Skipton, the character of the town centre may limit the practicality or desirability of ‘living over the shop’. However, the range of sites identified in the plan for a mix of town centre uses including residential uses under Policy SP 5 will allow for a mix and balance of uses in the town centre, including an element of residential.

Out of Centre Retail Proposals

7.59    The plan sets a context for supporting and promoting town centre uses in town centres. However, it is possible that proposals will come forward on identified and unidentified sites for retail uses in out of centre locations. Where this occurs, the impact of proposals on the health and vitality of town centres will need to be assessed and the plan sets floorspace thresholds as to the scale of proposals where an impact assessment will be required. The ultimate aim is to ensure that the health of retail centres is not adversely affected by out of centre retail proposals. It is within this context, that the following policies are brought forward.

POLICY EC5: TOWN, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES

Proposals for the ongoing enhancement and focus of town and village centres as locations for commercial, retail, leisure, cultural and community activity (town centre uses) will be supported in line with the following hierarchy:

Level 1 Town Centre – Skipton

Within the Primary Shopping Area, as identified on the policies map, the retail role and function of the area will be safeguarded to protect its vitality and viability. Changes of use from retailing (Class A1) to other uses will not be

permitted where this would lead to a significant adverse impact, either individually or cumulatively, on the vitality and viability of Skipton.

Elsewhere within the town centre, as identified on the policies map, the commercial, retail, leisure, cultural and community functions of Skipton will be safeguarded and enhanced. Proposals for town centre uses will be supported where they underpin and support the function of the centre.

Proposals for main town centre uses identified as part of the regeneration sites identified under Policy SP5 (site references SK139 and SK140) will be supported in principle, subject to meeting other relevant local plan policies, including the impact tests set out below where necessary.

Level 2 Town Centre – Settle

Within the town centre, as identified on the policies map, the commercial, retail, leisure, cultural and community functions of Settle will be safeguarded and enhanced. Proposals for town centre uses will be supported where they underpin and support the function of the centre.

Levels 3 and 4 District and Local Centres – Bentham, Cross Hills and Ingleton

Within the District and Local Centres of Bentham, Cross Hills and Ingleton, as identified on the policies map, proposals for main town centre uses will be supported where they underpin and support the commercial, retail, leisure, cultural and community functions of these District and Local centres and are commensurate in size and scale to the role and function of the centres

Retail Capacity

The following capacity by centre for comparison and convenience retailing as at February 2016 is presented in the table below. Development proposals will need to take account that circumstances may change as a result of commitments and implemented developments since February 2016 and the implications these may have on potential residual capacity.  

Level

Town/Village centre

Comparison floor space requirement to 2032

Convenience floor space requirement to 2032

1

Skipton Town Centre

3,291 sq.m

2,441 sq.m

2

Settle Town Centre

650 sq.m

0 (-588) sq.m

3

Bentham District Centre

217 sq.m

474 sq.m

3

Cross Hills District Centre

83 sq.m

353 sq.m

4

Ingleton Local Centre

285 sq.m

389 sq.m

Proposals that make contributions to meeting the identified capacity will be supported, subject to compliance with other relevant plan policies.

Main Town Centre Uses Outside of Defined Town Centres

Proposals for main town centre uses in locations outside of defined town centres as identified on the policies map, will be required to demonstrate that there are no sequentially preferable locations that are available and suitable for the proposed development, and that the proposal will not result in a significant adverse impact on vitality and viability.

The following impact thresholds are applied in respect of retail, office and leisure use proposals in locations outside of defined town centres:

Level

Settlement centre

Floor Space Impact Thresholds (gross)

1

Skipton Town Centre

1,500 sq.m

2

Settle Town Centre

750 sq.m

3

Bentham District Centre

500 sq.m

3

Cross Hills District Centre

500sq.m

4

Ingleton Local Centre

250 sq.m

POLICY EC5A: RESIDENTIAL USES IN TOWN, DISTRICT AND LOCAL CENTRES

Skipton Primary Shopping Area

Within the primary shopping area (PSA) of Skipton, as identified on the policies map, the primarily retail function of this area will be safeguarded and protected. Within the PSA of Skipton, proposals for residential use at ground floor level will not be permitted where this would lead to a significant adverse impact on vitality and viability.

Skipton and Settle Town Centre Areas

Proposals for standalone residential uses that require planning permission within the identified town centre areas of Skipton and Settle will be supported where it can be adequately demonstrated that the proposed residential use will not result in the loss of retail, commercial, leisure accommodation or premises suitable for community uses and will not result in significant adverse impact on town centre vitality and viability.

Within the identified town centre areas of Skipton and Settle, mixed use regeneration proposals that include an element of residential uses will be supported where the mix of uses underpins and enhances the vitality and viability of those centres.

Bentham District Centre, Cross Hills District Centre, Ingleton Local Centre

Proposals for residential uses at ground floor level within the District Centres of Bentham and Cross Hills and the Local Centre of Ingleton, as identified on the policies map, will be supported where the retail, commercial and leisure function of the District or Local centre is not undermined.

First floor residential use

At first floor level, proposals for residential uses within the identified primary shopping area of Skipton, within the identified town centre boundaries of Skipton and Settle and the district/local centres of Bentham, Cross Hills and Ingleton will be supported where it can be demonstrated that the proposal will not undermine the retail function of the identified centre; supports and enhances the vitality of the centre and accords with other relevant plan policies.

SECTION 8: INFRASTRUCTURE, SERVICES AND FACILITIES 

PLANNING OBLIGATIONS

8.1       Planning obligations or “section 106 agreements” may be entered into by developers as part of the development process. They are sometimes needed to ensure that places and communities grow in a sustainable way and to help deliver the objectives, aspirations and strategy of the local plan. In general, it is preferable to attach a condition, rather than an obligation, to a planning permission, but planning law and guidance may dictate otherwise, depending on the circumstances. Where necessary, obligations will be used to mitigate the impact of development, to compensate for the loss of or damage to specific features, or to prescribe the form of development and will only be sought where they meet all of the following tests:

  • necessary to make the development acceptable in planning terms; 
  • directly related to the development; and 
  • fairly and reasonably related in scale and kind to the development.

Development will be resisted if necessary mitigation measures cannot be secured through appropriate conditions or obligations.

Community infrastructure levy (CIL)

8.2       The Council will consider the introduction of CIL in consultation with developers, local communities and infrastructure providers and will undertake the necessary work and procedural requirements to ensure that any charges do not undermine the local plan strategy. Planning obligations and CIL will perform their separate and respective functions and developers will be safeguarded from “double charging”.

Infrastructure Planning 

8.3       The Council is required to assess the level of infrastructure required to support the development set out within the Local Plan. The Council engages with infrastructure delivery bodies and relevant stakeholders to determine infrastructure requirements, assessing infrastructure requirements from site allocations and assessing the level of growth cumulatively. These are detailed within the Council’s Infrastructure Delivery Plan as set out within Policy SP12.

Development viability and delivery

8.4       Considerations of cost, the need for landowners and developers to receive competitive returns and a necessary degree of flexibility have all been built into the local plan’s policy requirements for affordable housing, infrastructure and other mitigation measures. This will ensure that the viability and delivery of planned development is not undermined.

Negotiations and planning applications

8.5       The council encourages applicants to discuss policy requirements and planning obligations at the pre-application stage, in order to prevent subsequent delays. Evidence on scheme viability should be made available, if necessary, and applicants should adopt a transparent and open-book approach. There are likely to be limited opportunities to negotiate on essential site specific items, such as road improvements, but affordable housing or tariff-style contributions are likely to provide more scope. In such cases, site-specific circumstances will be taken into account. Whilst applicants do not have to agree to planning obligations, they need to be aware that this may lead to their planning applications being refused or left undetermined. Once a planning obligation is in place, it can be renegotiated by agreement or, after 5 years, an application can be made to change it. Where an obligation relates to affordable housing, an application can be made at any time and will be determined on the economic viability of affordable housing only. No affordable housing or tariff-style planning obligations will be required from starter-home exception sites.

Implementation and monitoring

8.6       The council keeps details of obligations on its public planning register, ensures that contributions are received and used, publishes relevant information and reports on progress. Any obligations requiring financial contributions will set out how and when funds will be paid and spent, and will allow for funds to be returned as a necessary last resort.

POLICY INF1: PLANNING OBLIGATIONS

Where necessary, planning obligations will help to mitigate the impact of Craven’s growth, support the provision of local infrastructure as identified under Policies H2, INF2, INF3, INF5, INF6 and INF7, secure community benefits and achieve sustainable development. This will be done in the following ways:

a) Planning obligations will be required where the form of development needs to be prescribed or where proposed development needs to be accompanied by new or improved infrastructure, facilities or services, or by environmental improvements.

b) Contributions secured through planning obligations may be required on-site or off-site or via the payment of funds; may be linked to the phasing of development and may be co-ordinated in partnership with infrastructure providers, service providers or other relevant bodies.

c) Financial contributions secured through planning obligations may be pooled to address needs or cumulative impacts arising from more than one development proposal.[50]

d) Development proposals will be refused if they are likely to have any relevant and significant adverse impact, including cumulative impact, that cannot be adequately mitigated by a planning obligation (or planning condition, if appropriate).

e) Negotiations undertaken during pre-application discussions or during the planning application process will take account of scheme viability and site specific circumstances.

f) Individual planning obligations will be renegotiated where a relevant and significant change in circumstances has occurred and the obligation no longer serves a useful purpose. This will include changes in scheme viability where this can be supported by compelling viability evidence. Applications to remove or modify affordable housing obligations will be determined solely on the economic viability of meeting those obligations.

g) Applicants will be expected to make adequate viability evidence available and to adopt a transparent and open book approach to negotiations. Financial or other sensitive information, which may be made available during negotiations, will be treated as confidential, unless the applicant indicates otherwise.

h) Planning obligations relating to financial contributions will specify a point in time at which funds will be returned, if they have not already been used for their intended purpose.

i) Proposals for the development of starter-home exception sites will be exempt from planning obligations and planning conditions requiring the provision of affordable housing or tariff style contributions.

COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SOCIAL SPACES

8.7       Community facilities and social spaces include; civic spaces, community centres, town and village halls, other cultural venues, schools, colleges, nurseries, church halls, places of worship, health services, care homes and extra care facilities, libraries, public houses, village/community shops and hubs or Post Offices that cater for day to day needs in both urban and rural communities. Town and village halls, community centres and church halls often provide the only place to meet within a rural community, providing vital and diverse support to improve quality of life, particularly for those who are least able to travel to a more distant centre of activities. Assets of Community Value are also included in this definition.  

8.8       Policy INF2 does not apply to sports facilities, open space and built sports facilities as development proposals affecting these spaces and facilities will need to meet the requirements of Policy INF3: Sport, Open Space and Built Sports Facilities.

8.9       The aim of local plan Policy INF2 is to support the retention and improvement of existing facilities and spaces, and the provision of new ones, to help safeguard the social well-being of communities and specifically to ensure that older people can avoid isolation and loneliness. The Council’s Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) sets out the new infrastructure or improvements to existing infrastructure that is necessary to support development within the Local Plan as detailed in Policy SP12.

8.10    Community facilities and social spaces used by local communities are wide ranging and are places of social interaction. The loss of these facilities, particularly in rural communities can reduce a community’s ability to meet its day to day needs. This can result in people travelling larger distances to facilities, disadvantaging the less mobile in particular and overall community wellbeing.

8.11    Recent changes to the planning system mean that, for a period of two years, public houses that are not designated as a community asset do not require permission for change of use to A1, A2, A3 and B1 uses. The Local Planning Authority however recognises the important role the 'local pub' can play within the community, especially in rural settlements and would support proposals for their retention through broadening the use or offer.

8.12    Civic spaces and cultural venues provide important spaces for both residents and visitors. This policy supports proposals for the improvement of such spaces, including public realm improvements to enhance quality of life and recognises the role they play in helping to economically sustain facilities and settlements. A range of town/village action and improvement plans exist throughout the plan area, which identify the need for improvement of open/civic space. These are documents that have been informed by and developed in consultation with the community; are based on addressing an identified need; are closely aligned with the vision and objectives of the Local Plan and also directly contribute to achieving the Council’s priority for an Enterprising Craven. These existing plans and any prepared in the future will be used to inform the implementation of Policy INF2.

8.13    Specifically in Craven there are concerns about the ability of communities to access health services and social care, especially in the mid and north sub-areas.   Technological improvements, such as rural broadband, offer some opportunities for accessing services in new ways; however service threats and opportunities vary across the plan area and are influenced by different trends in population change, migration and commuting.   For example, there is a notable trend towards falling school rolls in the north sub-area. These kinds of issues and pressures can threaten the sustainability of Craven’s communities and make rural isolation more likely.

8.14    Loneliness is a particular challenge faced by older people living in rural communities, which affects health, wellbeing and quality of life. Craven is ageing more rapidly than North Yorkshire and the nation as a whole, and the over 80s age group is forecast to be the fastest growing of all, over the next 15 years. Given this rapid growth in the older age groups over the plan period there is likely to be a continued requirement for older person’s accommodation. Nationally there is a move away from traditional care homes towards better home care support, including extra care housing.   This policy recognises the need for both traditional care homes and extra care accommodation to meet the existing and future needs of Craven’s older population and the opportunities that exist to deliver new accessible clusters of facilities for this age group in certain locations. Cultural provision at a local level further supports measures to combat social isolation and loneliness.

POLICY INF2: COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SOCIAL SPACES

Craven’s community facilities will be improved, and new ones will be created, to meet the needs of the local community as it grows and changes over time. This will help to promote health, wellbeing and equality and will be achieved in the following ways:

Where new community facilities or improvements to existing community facilities are proposed and it can be demonstrated that there is a local need for the facility, encouragement and support will be given to:-

a)    Development proposals that are of a scale that is in keeping with the location; the proposed facilities or spaces are well located and accessible and there would be no significant adverse impact on residential amenity.

b)    Innovative schemes for sustaining or improving community facilities, including opportunities to secure benefits from locating new community assets with or alongside other forms of development.

c)    Development proposals for or including public realm enhancements that provide or improve places of recreation or social interaction.

Existing community facilities and social spaces that are used and valued by local communities will be safeguarded wherever possible from unnecessary and avoidable loss. Development proposals that would result in the loss of such community facilities will need to be fully justified on grounds that:

d)   The facility is not suitable or needed for any alternative community use; and

e)    The facility and its use are no longer viable in financial or functional terms and all reasonable efforts have been made to retain the facility and to continue its use; and

f)     Realistic marketing of the facility has been carried out recently, but has been unsuccessful, with little or no genuine interest being shown; or

g)    The facility to be lost will be replaced by an equivalent facility of equal or greater value to the same local community and arrangements for this replacement will be secured by a planning obligation or other acceptable means.

SPORT, OPEN SPACE AND RECREATION FACILITIES

8.15    In order to plan effectively for sport, open space and built sports opportunities, and to meet the NPPF requirement that policies relating to such facilities and spaces should be based on robust and up to date assessments of needs and opportunities for new provision, a Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and Built Sports Facility Strategy were prepared in 2016 (Appendix A).  

8.16    This study makes an assessment of the quality, quantity and accessibility of existing provision and identifies areas of deficiency and surplus, making recommendations as to where facilities could be improved or redeveloped, or where new open spaces, pitches and facilities could be provided to address localised quantitative and accessibility deficiencies. Below is a summary of the findings of this work.

Open Space

8.17    The types of open space assessed are:

  • Parks and gardens
  • Amenity greenspace
  • Provision for children and young people
  • Allotments
  • Cemeteries, churchyards and other burial grounds.
  • Civic spaces
  • Natural and semi natural greenspaces (primary purpose is wildlife conservation, biodiversity and environmental education and awareness) and green corridors (primary purpose is for walking, cycling or horse riding for leisure purposes or travel and opportunities for wildlife migration)[51]

(Note; due to the rural nature of the plan area most residents have access to the open countryside, therefore only natural/semi natural and green corridors located within existing settlements have been assessed e.g. Skipton Woods and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal).

8.18    Open spaces contribute to individual and community wellbeing. It is therefore important that existing open spaces should be retained, improved where required and that new opportunities are realised wherever possible.

8.19    The 2016 Assessment identifies future needs and demands for open space and recommends the creation of an “iplay” playground in Aireville Park and Settle; provision of a skatepark in Settle; implementation of the Aireville Park Master Plan, improvement of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal corridor through the implementation of the Leeds & Liverpool Canal Towpath Access Development Plan, construct a new pump track in the mid and north sub area; create new or improve existing playgrounds to incorporate “green play” i.e., at Aireville Park and in Bentham; build a new Multi Use Games Area (MUGA) in the mid sub area i.e., in Settle. There is also a need to meet the following quantitative shortfall of open space that exists:

  • Parks and garden provision in North and Mid Craven; 
  • Green corridors in North and Mid Craven; 
  • Amenity greenspace in South Craven; 
  • Provision for children and young people in Mid and North Craven; 
  • Allotment provision in North Craven; 
  • Cemeteries, churchyards and burial grounds in North Craven; 
  • Civic spaces in North Craven.

8.20    The assessment shows that throughout the plan area generally, by the end of plan period (2032) there are deficiencies in all types of open space. More detailed analysis against open space standards by north, mid and south Craven sub areas are provided within section 7 of the Open Space Assessment. Prioritisation and identification of the type of open space to be provided or improved will be informed by the 2016 Open Space Assessment and any subsequent updates.    

Playing Pitches

8.21    The Council’s Playing Pitch Strategy (PPS) 2016, provides an up to date analysis of supply and demand regarding playing pitches (grass and artificial) which serve Football, Rugby Union, Cricket and Hockey. The PPS concludes that:

  • Craven has sufficient quantitative provision for current and future levels of demand for cricket, football and hockey and the focus should be on improving the quality of provision. 
  • Rugby does not currently have adequate quantitative provision to satisfy the demand of local residents, therefore it is recommended that existing rugby pitches are improved and that a new rugby specific 3G Artificial Grass Pitch (AGP) is addressed through development at Giggleswick School. 
  • The quality of pitches is fairly ordinary apart from cricket, which scored well against a number of high quality sites. 
  • There is a shortage of 3G Artificial Grass Pitch (AGP) provision, which could be addressed through development at Giggleswick School and the installation of floodlights at South Craven School to allow further community use of their full size 3G AGP. 
  • An opportunity exists to develop Sandylands in Skipton as a multi-sport hub to improve the quality and quantity of provision at one of the most accessible and largest sites in the district.

8.22    The Local Plan will support, subject to meeting other relevant local plan policies the delivery of the recommendations set out in table 49 of the PPS. The aim of Policy INF3 is to help to maintain the current level of pitch provision that exists for cricket, football and hockey, and increase the level of rugby pitch provision, subject to the delivery of specific objectives set out within the PPS and any subsequent updates. Additionally, an emphasis should be placed on improving the quality of playing pitches and ancillary/associated facilities, particularly where deficiencies have been identified through the PPS.

Built Sport Facilities

8.23    The Council’s Built Sports Facilities Strategy (2016) provides a clear understanding of the overall surpluses and deficiencies that exist across the plan area relating to indoor and outdoor built sports facilities, which include swimming pools, sports halls, fitness facilities (gyms), bowling greens and tennis courts. The assessment also provides specific geographical and/or individual facility current and future needs.   The strategy has identified a need for a multi-purpose sports hall space in Skipton, the replacement for ageing sports halls at Sandylands and Skipton Academy, improvement or replacement of facilities at Settle Pool and the need to optimise capacity for community use of sports facilities on education sites including Giggleswick and South Craven Schools. A deficiency in pool space has been identified by the end of the plan period (2032). The assessment recognises planned improvements to existing tennis facilities in Skipton and recommends that existing bowling greens should be protected and enhanced to meet the changing demographics of Craven.

8.24    In terms of built sports facilities, the aim of local plan Policy INF3 is to maintain the current level of provision and to improve the quality of existing facilities or provide replacement facilities in line with the Built Sports Facilities Strategy.

8.25    In addition to the Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and Built Sports Facility Strategy, a range of public realm improvements have been identified within existing town/village action and improvement plans, and the Retail & Leisure Study with Health Checks 2016. These improvement schemes are set out in the Council’s Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP), therefore local plan Policy INF1: Planning Obligations is a relevant policy consideration when assessing planning proposals relating to open spaces, public realm and sports facilities.

8.26    Policy INF3 will support, subject to meeting other relevant local plan policies, the delivery of the standards, recommendations and actions set out in the PPS, Open Space Assessment and the Built Sports Facilities Strategy 2016 and any subsequent updates. Priority will be given where the greatest deficiency exists in terms of the type of open space, pitches or facilities, as identified in the study and any subsequent updates.

8.27    In order to take account of national planning policy requirements Policy INF3 requires all new residential developments of 11 or more dwellings and on any site with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000 sqm, to provide or contribute towards new or improved sport, open space and built sports facilities. In designated rural areas[52], as identified under Section 157 of the Housing Act 1985, all new housing and mixed use developments of between 6 to 10 dwellings and from developments of less than 6 dwellings but more than 1000m2 combined gross floorspace will also be required to provide or contribute towards new or improved sport, open space and built sports facilities. Contributions will be commuted until after completion of units within the development.

8.28    Proposals for new residential development of 50 or more dwellings may be required to provide new sport, open space and built sports facilities on site; however this depends on the extent and nature of deficiencies identified across the plan area.

8.29    Standards and formula relating to the provision of new or improvements to existing sports, open space and built sports facilities are set out at Appendix A. Applications for development which would result in a loss of space or facilities in a settlement to below the standards set out in Appendix A are unlikely to be acceptable.

8.30    Where new provision is required on site, appropriate arrangements must be made for the on-going maintenance of the new facilities. Further details are provided in Appendix A.

8.31    Open Spaces and sports facilities (both indoor and outdoor) provide essential informal and formal recreation opportunities for communities and they should be protected from redevelopment wherever possible. Nevertheless, there may be limited circumstances where the loss of facilities or spaces may be acceptable. These circumstances are set out at d) in the policy below.  

8.32    This policy, together with other relevant Local Plan policies, for example ENV5: Green Infrastructure and ENV10: Local Green Space aims to promote healthy lifestyle choices by providing opportunities to establish or improve existing green corridors and spaces throughout the plan area.

POLICY INF3: SPORT, OPEN SPACE AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

Craven's growth will promote health, wellbeing and equality by safeguarding and improving sport, open space and built sports facilities. This will be achieved in the following ways.

a)     Supporting proposals for the provision of new sport, open space and built sports facilities, or for the improvement of existing sport, open space and built sports facilities, including facilities for temporary events, provided the proposals are of a scale in keeping with the location, are well located and accessible by different modes of transport including walking, cycling and public transport and accord with all relevant local plan policies and any relevant neighbourhood plan policies.

b)     The provision or contribution towards new or improved sport, open space and built sports facilities is required in the following circumstances:

1.    All new housing and mixed-use developments of 11 or more dwellings and on any site with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000 sqm, including those on sites allocated under local plan Policies SP5 to SP11. Contributions will not be sought from developments of 10 units or less, or which have a maximum combined gross floor space of no more than 1000sqm (gross internal area).

2.    In designated rural areas all new housing and mixed use developments yielding between 6 to 10 dwellings and from developments of less than 6 dwellings but more than 1000m2 combined gross floorspace.   In designated rural areas, contributions will not be sought from developments of 5 units or less.

c)     New provision or contributions towards improving existing spaces and facilities must cater for the needs arising from the development. Where a quantity deficiency exists in a location, the Council will seek, where possible, on-site provision of facilities and will expect appropriate arrangements to be made for their on-going maintenance. Where the locality has a deficiency in the quality of existing open space or sports and recreation facilities, the Council will require a contribution to be made to address that qualitative deficiency off-site. Deficiencies are identified in the Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and     Built Sports Facilities Strategy 2016 and any subsequent updates when compared against minimum standards. The requirement for either on-site or off-site provision will be calculated by applying the standards and formula set out in Appendix A

d)     Safeguarding existing sport, open space and built sports facilities from unnecessary and avoidable loss. This means that development proposals involving the loss of sport, open space or built sports facilities will only be supported in the following limited circumstances.

1.    A surplus in the relevant type of sport, open space or built sports facility has been identified, in the locality, by the Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and Built Sports Facilities Strategy 2016 (or any subsequent updates), and the site cannot be reused or adapted to meet an identified deficit in another type or form of sport, open space or recreational facility; or

2.    An equivalent replacement sport, open space or built sports facility, the benefit of which will be at least equal to that being lost, is to be provided on the site or in an accessible location nearby; or

3.    If specific sites are identified in an up to date Playing Pitch Strategy, Built Sports Facilities Strategy or Open Space Assessment as being partially surplus, and therefore can be developed in return for improvements, the partial loss of a site may be justified where evidence is provided and where a proposal is supported by the relevant National Governing Bodies for Sport.

PARKING PROVISION

8.33    Parking for cars and other vehicles in residential developments, for new businesses including industrial estates, town centre and other retail schemes is an important sustainability consideration in reducing congestion, supporting sustainable transport modes and in promoting road safety.

8.34    Craven’s sparse rural nature with large distances between settlements and often limited public transport, means the district is heavily car reliant with 83% of households owning a car (2011 Census) and a higher proportion than average of households with more than one car. Furthermore, travel to work statistics show (2011 Census) that 57% of people in work in Craven, drive to work, compared to 54% nationally. It is recognised that such high levels of car use are likely to remain given the issues faced and as such careful management of parking for both public and private use is required.

8.35    In their role as local highway authority and a statutory consultee on planning applications, North Yorkshire County Council has published ‘Interim Guidance on Transport Issues including Parking Standards and Advice on Transport Assessments and Travel Plans (2015)’. This publication provides useful guidance on recommended minimum parking standards for cars, motorised two-wheel vehicles, disabled parking and operational service requirements. Developers are encouraged to refer to this guidance when formulating proposals for planning applications, as it will help them to ensure that all relevant considerations are identified, taken into account and adequately addressed in their submissions.

8.36    The level of parking provision required can be influenced by the location of new development, accessibility to public transport, provision for cyclists and the availability of public parking. The Local Plan recognises that improvements to public transport can reduce the requirement for parking provision, and have a beneficial impact on "anti-social" parking, particularly with respect to commuting. It will therefore support all necessary improvements in public transport that have a positive impact on existing problems of parking provision and congestion at key "pinch points”. Environmental considerations including townscape character, the historic environment and landscape value all have a bearing on determining the appropriate level of parking provision for new development proposals.

8.37    Previous consultations with residents have identified a number of towns and villages where existing problems of anti-social parking exist, particularly within historic villages with a tight grain. In such locations, careful consideration will need to be given to ensuring existing problems are not made worse or new problems created. This may include requiring new development to incorporate parking provision in excess of the minimum local standards.

8.38    Craven District Council has responsibility for off street parking, with Civil Parking Enforcement managed by Harrogate Borough Council. The Craven District Council Parking Strategy 2014-2019 includes a series of objectives to manage off street parking effectively. In terms of on street parking, North Yorkshire County Council is responsible for managing on street parking, the North Yorkshire County Council Parking Strategy (2011), makes provisions for all aspects of parking under the local highway authority’s control.

8.39    The parking strategy should be read in the context of the North Yorkshire Local Transport Plan which recognises the importance of managing on-street parking provision because of the potential for major impacts on the transport network. Through adopting a managed approach to parking, benefits can be delivered including reducing traffic congestion, road safety and access to public transport, and improving parking and servicing of local businesses.

8.40    Where relevant both the Craven District Council Parking Strategy and the North Yorkshire County Council Parking Strategy should be given due consideration.

8.41    The take-up of ultra-low emissions vehicles within rural areas, to date has been relatively slow, with only one publicly available electric vehicle charging point in operation at Ingleton. However, with an ever increasing range of vehicles including electric, plug-in hybrid and hydrogen powered cars and vans and purchasing costs reducing, it is anticipated that usage will increase significantly over the lifetime of the Local Plan playing an important role in cutting greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. To encourage take up locally, the provision of charging points is supported as part of new development proposals. Location and design of necessary infrastructure will be important considerations.    

8.42    When considering proposals for parking, in order to reduce potential for surface water flooding and the protection of water quality, sustainable drainage systems should be implemented (SuDS) with surface materials being permeable.

POLICY INF4: PARKING PROVISION

New developments will help to minimise congestion, encourage sustainable transport modes and reduce conflict between road users by ensuring proper provision and management of parking for cars and other vehicles. This will be achieved in the following ways:

a) The provision of safe, secure, and convenient parking of an appropriate quantity including the need for parking or secure storage for cars, cycles and motor cycles, and where relevant, coaches and lorries.

b) The provision of appropriate parking space for cars, motorised two-wheel vehicles, disabled parking and operational service requirements having regard to the nature and circumstances of the proposed development. The Council will adopt a flexible approach with each case being determined on its own merits, enabling good design solutions to be achieved.

c) In areas where anti-social parking is a recognised problem or potential exists for a problem to arise impacting on the quality of life or vitality of an area, the Council will work with developers to ensure existing problems are not made worse or new problems created.

d) In drawing up and determining proposals for new development, relevant consideration will be given to any likely impacts on public off-street parking and parking on the public highway (on-street parking).

e) Encouragement will be given to the increased use of low emission vehicles, including where appropriate the provision of electric vehicle charging points.

f) The incorporation of sustainable drainage systems (SuDS), permeable surfacing materials and means of protecting water quality in drainage schemes for example through oil interceptors should be ensured.

COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE

8.43    The expansion of communication infrastructure across Craven will be supported, particularly in areas where mobile and broadband connectivity is poor or non-existent.

8.44    The provision of appropriate communications infrastructure within new development should balance the viability of a new development with that of the long term social and economic viability and vitality of Craven in terms of connectivity to high quality communications infrastructure and the benefits it provides to residents and businesses.

Mobile Telephony

8.45    There is likely to be a need to establish new mobile telecommunications infrastructure within Craven over the lifetime of the Local Plan. This policy seeks to ensure that new infrastructure makes use of existing sites and structures wherever possible. Any applications for new telecommunications infrastructure will be expected to demonstrate the need for their location if this is not the case.

Broadband Access

8.46    Broadband connectivity across the plan area varies considerably. Government initiatives to invest in broadband infrastructure aims to ensure that 95% of premises in England will have access to Next Generation Access broadband (also referred to as superfast broadband) by 2017. In addition the European Commission, through the Digital Agenda for Europe, anticipates 100% coverage of 30Mbps broadband or more by 2020[53] and that over 50% of households will have a subscription to broadband connection in excess of 100Mbps.

8.47    Occupiers of new residential or commercial premises now often expect a high quality broadband connection as a utility similar to the provision of electricity or water. Applicants are required to actively demonstrate that they have considered broadband within their proposals and the digital requirements of the development and the resulting level of connectivity.

8.48    Policy INF5 indicates that all development will enable Next Generation Access broadband where viable. The definition of Next Generation Access used within this policy is defined as a broadband service that provides a download speed in excess of 30Mbps as detailed in the Digital Agenda for Europe.

8.49    Where it can be demonstrated that Next Generation Access broadband is not viable, the development should provide a minimum download speed of 10Mbps and incorporate measures to facilitate future delivery of Next Generation Access broadband within their plans i.e. laying ducting capable of carrying fibre cables from multiple providers.

8.50    Where a proposal would be classed as major development applicants should engage with communication providers and local broadband projects as appropriate to identify where the development may contribute to and integrate with existing initiatives..

8.51    Agreement in February 2016 between the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the House Builders Federation and Openreach have outlined a process for the delivery of Next Generation Access broadband on new residential developments which should be considered.  

8.52    Access to free public WiFi supports the vitality of town and village centres for residents, visitors and businesses. Opportunities to add to the visitor experience by extending existing or creating new public WiFi networks will be supported provided the infrastructure meets the requirements of Policy INF5.

POLICY INF5: COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE

The expansion of communications infrastructure including Next Generation Access broadband (or its equivalent) will be supported. This will be achieved by:

a)     Supporting the expansion of communications networks which use existing infrastructure, including masts and structures;

b)     Supporting the provision of new communications infrastructure where it can be demonstrated that using existing infrastructure or equipment would not be feasible and provided the proposal does not have a significant adverse impact on the character or appearance of the surrounding area. Where apparatus or associated infrastructure is proposed to be located on a building, the proposal will be supported provided the siting, scale and design of the apparatus or associated infrastructure does not have a significant adverse impact on the external appearance of the building.

c)     Ensuring the location and design of proposals avoid harm to sensitive areas* or buildings/structures and accord with local plan Policies ENV1: Countryside and Landscape, ENV2: Heritage, and ENV4 Biodiversity.

* Sensitive areas are identified as Forest of Bowland AONB (including setting); Yorkshire Dales National Park (including setting), Conservation Areas, Listed Buildings, Scheduled Ancient Monuments, Registered Parks and Gardens, Special Protection Areas (SPA), and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINC), Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Ancient Woodland.

Broadband Access in New Developments:

d)     All new development proposals will be required to demonstrate the anticipated connectivity requirements of the proposed use and how the development will contribute to, and be compatible with, Next Generation Access broadband (or its equivalent).

e)     All new development will be required to enable a Next Generation Access broadband connection (or its equivalent) where viable. Where it can be demonstrated that the provision of a Next Generation Access broadband connection (or its equivalent) is not viable or possible, proposals should provide a minimum download connection of 10Mbps or the requirements of any universal service obligation, whichever is greater, and incorporate suitable infrastructure to support delivery of Next Generation Access broadband (or its equivalent) at a future date.

f)      Applicants proposing major development schemes should engage with communication providers and local broadband groups to explore how Next Generation Access broadband (or its equivalent) can be provided and how the development may contribute to and integrate with active broadband projects within the local area.

EDUCATION PROVISION

8.53    In the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) the government attaches great importance to ensuring that a sufficient choice of school places is available to meet the needs of existing and new communities. Local planning authorities (LPAs) should take a proactive, positive and collaborative approach to meeting this requirement and to development that will widen choice in education. The NPPF advises that LPAs should give great weight to the need to create, expand or alter schools and work with schools promoters to identify and resolve key planning issues before applications are submitted.

8.54    One of the core principles of the NPPF that should underpin both plan-making and decision-taking is that planning should actively manage patterns of growth to enable infrastructure such as primary schools to be provided in walkable locations to areas of new residential development to facilitate sustainable travel patterns.

8.55    Craven District Council has worked closely with North Yorkshire County Council, (the Local Education Authority (LEA)) in producing the local plan, and based on the growth planned in Skipton and Bentham, this work has identified the potential need for two new primary schools in Skipton and an extension to the primary school in High Bentham, and the need to provide for education infrastructure in association with residential development. This provision is an important element in achieving sustainable communities.

8.56 The local plan mechanisms, for enabling these new schools and school extension to be built, and for the provision of new school places in association with residential development are:-

  • the safeguarding of land for education purposes within two residential site allocations in Skipton and one in Bentham;
  • a system of collecting developer contributions via Section 106 legal agreements from residential developments which are likely to have a significant impact on increasing pressures on school capacity.

8.57    Appendix B to the plan sets out how developer contributions are calculated, so as to conform with the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) Regulations 2010, as amended, on planning obligations.

8.58    The Council has worked closely with both the local education authority (LEA/CSA) and the Education and Skills Funding Agency (ESFA) in preparing this policy. In September 2018, a Department for Education (DfE) consultation commenced on ‘Establishing pupil yields from housing development and securing developer contributions for education’. The LEA is committed to reviewing its evidence base on pupil yields and development costs/cost multipliers in the light of the outcome of this consultation, working with the ESFA. As part of the review the LEA intend to use the DfE Scorecard data. When this review is completed, Craven District Council will need to consider what the implications are for planning for education in the plan area. The options include the production of a supplementary planning document or a partial review of the plan in connection with this policy and/or Appendix B, taking into account plan viability.

8.59    It is possible that the educational need for one or both of the two potential primary schools in Skipton and the school extension in Bentham will be met elsewhere in Skipton and Bentham respectively. Under these circumstances, the LEA will determine if this is the case and inform the LPA if any of the areas of land safeguarded for primary schools in Skipton and Bentham are no longer required for educational purposes. If the safeguarded land is no longer required for the provision of a primary school or school extension, residential development will be acceptable in principle provided any proposal for residential development meets the development principles set out for the remainder of the site at Policy SP5 and SP7 respectively and accords with other relevant Local Plan policies.

POLICY INF6: EDUCATION PROVISION

Craven’s growth will ensure that a sufficient choice of school places is available to meet the needs of existing and new residents. This will be achieved in the following ways:

a) Supporting proposals for the provision of new, replacement and extended or altered schools which are of a scale in keeping with the location, are accessible and accord with all relevant local plan policies and any relevant neighbourhood plan policies.

b) Unless the educational need is met elsewhere in Skipton, 1.8 hectares of land will be safeguarded for new primary school provision in Skipton within the following sites allocated in the Local Plan, in accordance with Policy SP5:

i. SK0081, SK0082, and SK0108: Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, and

ii. SK089 and SK090: Land to the north of Airedale Avenue and Elsey Croft and east of the railway line.

c) Unless the educational need is met elsewhere in Bentham, 0.3 hectares of land will be safeguarded for an extension to Bentham Primary School within land allocation HB038, in accordance with Policy SP7.

d) Where a residential or mixed use development would result in a deficit of school places in the area, and is above the site size threshold below, it will be required to provide developer contributions for education provision, in accordance with Policy INF1 and Appendix B of this plan, or any subsequent supplementary planning document, to meet the resultant deficit. The site threshold sizes, controls and exemptions, which apply are:

i. For primary schools: more than 25 dwellings in the town of Skipton and 15 or more dwellings outside of Skipton, and

ii. For secondary schools: more than 100 dwellings across the plan area.

iii. Contributions will be sought from proposed developments on local plan allocated sites, and on windfall sites that are phased or are brought forward in a piecemeal fashion and where the total combined, or ‘holistic’ development of the allocated or windfall site exceeds the relevant threshold.

iv. Contributions will not be sought from sheltered accommodation or genuine elderly person, student or holiday accommodation, temporary housing or bedsits and one bedroomed dwellings.

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND HIGHWAYS

8.60    The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) states that local authorities should work with neighbouring authorities and transport providers to develop strategies for the provision of viable infrastructure necessary to support sustainable development. The Council will continue to work closely with all relevant stakeholders to maximise opportunities to travel by non-car modes of transport and secure a safe and efficient transport network for the benefit of local and regional businesses, tourism and the community as a whole.

8.61    Paragraphs 2.3 to 2.18 of this Local Plan set out the Sub- Regional Economic and Transport context of the plan area and references the relevant bodies who the Council are working with on sub regional connectivity issues. The Council will continue to work closely with the local highway authority, North Yorkshire County Council, to agree appropriate transport proposals to accommodate and facilitate growth and seek to develop appropriate funding packages to ensure that development proposals provide for appropriate sustainable transport opportunities and adequate highway improvements. The North Yorkshire County Council Local Transport Plan 2016- 2046 (LTP4) (2016) and Strategic Transport Prospectus (2015) provide the local highway authority’s strategic, policy and planning transport documents.

8.62    Policy SP2 c) of this plan supports enhanced connectivity with the rest of North Yorkshire, the wider Leeds City Region, Lancashire, Cumbria and Greater Manchester; the provision of pedestrian and cycle links to enhanced public transport facilities; and protects the original double track route of the Skipton to Colne railway line for future transport use. The latter is marked on the plan’s policies map and is similarly protected in the Pendle District Local Plan.

8.63    The NPPF seeks to actively manage patterns of growth to support opportunities to use of public transport, walking and cycling, and focus significant development in locations which are or can be made sustainable. The Craven Local Plan Policy SP4 seeks to achieve this pattern of growth through its focussing of future development in the town of Skipton which has good rail and bus links. After Skipton, the market towns of Settle and Bentham will accommodate a relatively high level of growth and are well related to the rail network, as well as having bus services connecting them with the surrounding countryside and other settlements in the District.

8.64    New development has the potential to provide opportunities for travel by non-car modes of travel and these opportunities should be maximised, through the planning application process, whatever the size of development. It is important that pre-application work for any size of development involve discussions with the local highway authority, North Yorkshire County Council, on all transport aspects of an emerging planning application.

8.65    The NPPF identifies the important role played by transport assessments, or transport statements, and travel plans in assessing and mitigating the negative transport impacts of development and promoting sustainable development. Travel Plans will therefore be required for all developments which generate significant amounts of traffic and will play an important role in identifying how the development might contribute to:

  • encouraging sustainable travel,
  • lessening the traffic generated and it's detrimental impacts,
  • minimising carbon emissions and their associated impacts on climate change,
  • creating accessible, connected, inclusive communities,
  • improving health outcomes and quality of life,
  • improving road safety, and
  • reducing the need for new development to increase existing road capacity and provide new roads.

8.66    North Yorkshire County Council as the Local Highway Authority has set out guidance on a range of transport issues, including advice on transport assessments and travel plans, in a document called Interim Guidance on Transport Issues (2015). This guidance sets out the indicative thresholds at which transport statements, transport assessments and travel plans are likely to be required for different types of development. Early pre-application discussions should take place with the local highway authority on the applicability of these indicative thresholds to a given development proposal. The provision of a safe, suitable and convenient access to new development sites should also be agreed with the local highway authority during pre-application discussions.

8.67    To avoid severe adverse cumulative residual impacts of development on the transport network, traffic generated by all developments on the highway network should be mitigated and where new development necessitates the provision of new or upgraded infrastructure, developer delivery of the mitigation or contributions, as appropriate, will be required in accordance with Policies SP12 and INF1 of the Local Plan.

8.68    Traffic modelling for Skipton has identified that the plan period’s growth of the town can be accommodated by the highway network, provided highway improvements are made at the following junctions:

  • A65/Gargrave Road/A629/A59. and
  • A6131/A65

8.69    A preliminary cost estimate for these works is £1.1 million. The following five site allocations for housing development in Skipton will each contribute to these costs in proportion to their dwelling numbers and to ensure that the full costs are met by the private sector

  • SK061
  • SK081/SK082 and SK108
  • SK089/SK090
  • SK101
  • SK114/SK124

8.70    The plan’s viability evidence has demonstrated that the above costs can be met, along with the plan’s other planning obligations for affordable housing, open space and education contributions and not threaten the bringing forward of these sites for viable developments.

POLICY INF7: SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND HIGHWAYS

The minimisation of greenhouse gases and congestion, and the provision of safe and accessible travel facilities will be supported by maximising the opportunities for travel by sustainable transport modes; avoiding severe residual cumulative impacts of development relating to transport; and the design of safe and convenient access to transport facilities. This will be achieved through:

a) working in partnership with the local highway authority, other authorities, local enterprise partnerships, transport providers, developers and local groups to implement Policies SP5 (Site SK140), ENV3 i to l), ENV11 and 12, INF4e) and SP2 c) of the Local Plan, and

i. promote a sustainable and improved transport system which is safe, reliable, and convenient,

ii. improve transport connectivity with the rest of North Yorkshire, the wider Leeds City Region, Lancashire, Cumbria and Greater Manchester.

b) maintaining a pattern of growth which reflects the spatial strategy and settlement hierarchy set out in Policy SP4 of the Local Plan.

c) ensuring that all developments maximise opportunities to travel by non- car modes of transport through the location and design of new developments and developer contributions for off-site transport facilities, including securing access to transport facilities by walking and cycling.

d) ensuring all developments that generate significant amounts of movement are supported by appropriate sustainable travel assessments, such as a Transport Statement, or Transport Assessment and a Travel Plan as reasonably required by the local highway authority, North Yorkshire County Council.

e) providing safe, suitable and convenient access to all development sites for all modes of transport and all people, including vulnerable users of the highway, and wheelchair-users, people with limited mobility and people with other disabilities.

f) ensuring that the residual cumulative impact of traffic generated by developments on the highway network is mitigated and where new development necessitates the provision of new or upgraded infrastructure, including safety measures and pedestrian and cycle connectivity:- this is to be developer funded.

g) securing tariff style developer contributions for the highway improvements necessary to mitigate the cumulative impact of the level of growth planned for the town of Skipton up to 2032 which are fairly and reasonably related in scale and kind to the relevant development. The relevant development will be those greenfield residential site allocations in this Local Plan in or adjacent to the built up area of Skipton.

SECTION 9: MONITORING 

9.1       Monitoring is an essential part of the plan-making process. By gathering a range of information from various sources, the Council can ensure that policies are achieving the Local Plan objectives and delivering sustainable development, and identify any unintended, negative effects of a policy’s implementation. Monitoring also gives a better understanding of the important social, economic and environmental factors influencing the District. By doing this, the authority can determine whether any changes are needed.

9.2       The Council will use a series of indicators to monitor the effectiveness of policies within the Local Plan and publish the results every year in their annual Authority Monitoring Report (as required by the Localism Act of 2011).   The reports will be based on the financial year (1st April to 31st March).

9.3       The table below shows the list of indicators that will be used to measure the delivery of the Plan Objectives. The indicators will be monitored and reported on once the Local Plan is adopted. The indicators that have been chosen make use of available information to ensure that they can be monitored on a regular basis.

9.4      As well as the indicators listed below, the Council will continue to report on a number of contextual indicators, which will provide key information on the District including demographic changes, unemployment statistics, house prices etc. These contextual indicators will help to provide an overall picture of whether the Vision of the Local Plan for Craven is being realised.

9.5      It is a requirement of the NPPF that local housing needs should be met.   The local housing needs in Craven District will be met through the housing policies of this Local Plan and the Yorkshire Dales National Park (YDNP) Local Plan (Adopted 2016).   Craven District Council will work closely with the YDNP authority in monitoring the supply of housing to ensure that the housing needs of the Craven Housing Market Area (Craven District, including part of the YDNP) are being met.

9.6       The Craven Local Plan Authority Monitoring Report will feature the latest position on housing supply across the whole Craven Housing Market Area (CHMA), split between the plan area and that part of the District within the YDNP.   Evidence provided at the examination of the Craven Local Plan indicated that a healthy housing land supply existed to meet local housing need. Indeed, as at October 2018, the housing land supply solely within the Craven Local Plan area for the plan period was over 600 dwellings more than the objectively assessed need for housing across the CHMA as a whole.

9.7       The continued contribution of the YDNP towards meeting the housing need of the CHMA will be assisted by the Park authority’s commitment to plan review.   Paragraph 4.12 of the YDNP Local Plan states that “The NPA has committed to a review of policy C1, including the sites allocated by it, within five years of adoption….” (by 2021). Policy C1: Housing in Settlements, allocates land for housing in the YDNP and supports the principle of appropriate new housing within the housing development boundaries marked on the policies map. If, through annual monitoring, an issue is identified in relation to delivering the housing needs of the whole CHMA, the two authorities will work together to identify any necessary courses of action to increase delivery in the short term. Furthermore, the review of Local Plans at least every five years from adoption will allow the policies of both planning authorities to respond to any issues that are identified for the medium to longer term.

Table of Monitoring Indicators

Plan Objective

Relevant Local Plan Policies  

Indicator

Target

PO1

·       SP4:Spatial Strategy and Housing Growth

·       SP5 to SP11 Strategy for Skipton, Settle, Bentham, Glusburn/ Cross Hills, Ingleton, Gargrave and Tier 4A and 4B villages.

·       SP12: Infrastructure Strategy and Development Delivery

·       ENV8: Water Resources, Water Quality and Groundwater

·       ENV12: Footpaths, Bridleways, Byways and Cycle Routes

·       INF1: Planning Obligations

·       INF2: Community Facilities and Social Spaces

·       INF3: Sport, Open Space and Recreation Facilities

·       INF4: Parking Provision

·       INF5: Communications Infrastructure

·       INF6: Education Provision

·       INF7: Sustainable Transport and Highways

·    Housing completions by settlement, expressed as:

o    Number of net additional dwellings and percentage of total completions.

o    Housing completions on allocated sites.

o    Housing completions on unallocated (windfall) sites, split by previously developed and greenfield land.

 

 

·    Amount of money secured through Section 106 agreements for the delivery of:

o    Infrastructure

o    Sports, open space, built sports, and recreation facilities

o    Education provision

o    Community facilities

·    Delivery of projects/ schemes identified in the Infrastructure Delivery Plan over the monitoring year.

·    Number of community facilities granted permission.

·    Provision and loss of sports, open space and built sports facilities

 

·   Housing completions by settlement to follow the settlement strategy set out in Policy SP4.

·   In settlements where development sites have been allocated under policies SP5 to SP11, housing development to generally take place on allocated sites in preference to windfall sites.

·   The majority of windfall development to take place on previously developed land.

 

·   Meet the requirements of the Infrastructure Delivery Plan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·   Monitor provision.

 

·   Meet the action plan targets identified in the Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and Built Sports Facilities Strategy, 2016.

PO2

·       ENV1: Countryside and Landscape

·       ENV2: Heritage

·       ENV3: Good Design

·       ENV4: Biodiversity

·       ENV5: Green Infrastructure

·       ENV10: Local Green Space

·       ENV11: The Leeds and Liverpool Canal

·    Number of planning applications approved where there are unresolved issues from:

o    Natural England

o    Historic England.

·    Number of designated heritage assets on the Historic England ‘Heritage at Risk’ Register.

·    Number of non-residential developments of 1,000m² or more meeting BREEAM ‘Very Good’ standards.

·    Development on sites identified as Local Green Space that falls outside the allowances of the policy

·       No planning applications should be granted against the advice of Historic England or Natural England.

 

 

·       No assets to be added to the list as a result of planning decisions.

 

·       All non-residential developments of 1,000m² or more to meet BREEAM ‘Very Good’ standards.  

·       No inappropriate development to take place on sites allocated as Local Green Space.

PO3

·       ENV1: Countryside and Landscape

·       ENV7: Land and Air Quality

·       ENV13: Green Wedges

·    Protection of best and most versatile (Grade 3) agricultural land.

·    Development on land allocated as Green Wedge.

 

·    Changes in sites designated for their importance for nature conservation (SINCs).

·       No windfall development to take place on Grade 3 agricultural land.

·       No development to take place within the Green Wedge.

·       Monitor changes on previous years.

PO4

·       SP1: Meeting Housing Need

·       H3: Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma

·    Housing trajectory:

o    Net additional dwellings completed since 1st April 2012.

o    Net additional dwellings completed for the monitoring year, split by PDL and green field.

o    Estimation of additional dwellings which could potentially be delivered in future years (Number of units with extant planning permissions or under construction, housing capacity of undeveloped sites allocated under Local Plan Policies SP5 to SP11)

o    Managing housing delivery over future years.

·    Number of Gypsy, Traveller, Showmen and Roma pitches in the plan area.

 

·       Minimum of 230 net additional dwellings per annum.

·       Maintenance of a five-year supply of developable housing sites.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       The Identified housing need of Gypsies, Travellers, Showmen and Roma is met within the District.

PO5

·       SP3: Housing Mix and Density

·       H1: Specialist Housing for older People

·       H2: Affordable Housing

·    Average density of housing completions.

·    Number of one, two, three and four + bedroom dwellings completed as a percentage of total completions.

·    Number of units of extra care or other specialist housing accommodation for older people provided.

·    Net additional affordable homes provided, split by type and tenure.

·    Number of affordable homes granted planning consent.

·    Number of sites of 11 dwellings or more, or exceeding 1000 m2 combined gross floorspace, achieving 30% affordable housing on site.

·    Money secured for off-site provision of affordable housing through S106 agreements.

·       Achieve an average net housing density of 32 dph.

·       The size of new houses and mix of housing types to broadly reflect the recommendations of the Strategic Housing Market Assessment, its successor, or other appropriate an up to date evidence of housing need.

·       Monitor provision compared to requirement.

·       Monitor provision compared to requirement.

 

 

·       30% of proposed new dwellings as affordable housing on developments of 11 dwellings or more/ more than 1000m2 combined gross floorspace.

·       Monitor provision.

PO6

·       EC5: Town, District and Local Centres

·       EC5A: Residential Uses in Town, District and Local Centres

·    Changes of use within Skipton and Settle Town Centres away from commercial, retail, leisure, cultural and community functions.

·    Change of use away from retail in the Primary Shopping Area of Skipton.

·    Changes of use to residential at ground floor level within the Primary Shopping Area of Skipton, and within town, district and local centres of Settle, Bentham, Cross Hills and Ingleton.

·    Number of vacant units in Skipton and Settle Town Centres.

·    Comparison and Convenience floorspace (m²) created in town, district and local centres of Skipton, Settle, Bentham, Cross Hills and Ingleton.

·       No loss of ground floor retail units to residential in primary retail area Skipton.

·       Minimal levels of changes in other town and village centres so as not to undermine the retail, commercial and leisure function of the centre.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       Monitor changes on previous years.

 

·       Meeting the identified floorspace needs in the town and village centres as identified in Policy EC5 – target floorspace figure.

PO7

·       SP2: Economic Activity and Business Growth

·       EC1: Employment and Economic Development

·       EC2: Safeguarding Existing Employment Areas

·       EC4: Tourism

 

·    Take-up of employment land allocated under policies SP5, SP6, SP9 and SP11 and area of allocated employment land remaining available (ha), over the monitoring year and since the adoption of the Local Plan.

·    Employment development on unallocated sites in towns, villages and rural areas (ha) over the monitoring year.

·    Total amount of additional employment floorspace completed by type (m²).

·    Total amount of employment floorspace by type on previously developed land (m²).

·    Area of existing employment land and existing employment land commitments (allocated under Policy EC2) lost through development/ change of use to uses other than B1, B2 or B8 (ha).

·    Development on land protected for future transport connectivity improvements.

·       Steady take up of employment land allocated under policies SP5, SP6, SP9 and SP11.

 

 

 

·       Tracking the trend of employment development on unallocated sites over the plan period.

·       Meeting targets for employment land provision over the plan period.

 

 

 

 

·       No safeguarded land to be lost to uses other than B1, B2 and B8.

 

 

 

 

·       No development to take place on land protected for future transport connectivity improvements, including the Skipton to Colne track bed and the Cross Hills Railway Station site.

PO8

·       ENV6: Flood Risk

·    Number of planning permissions granted contrary to Environment Agency advice.

·       No development proposals to be granted consent against the advice of the Environment Agency.

PO9

·       ENV9: Renewable and Low Carbon Energy

·    Planning permissions granted for renewable energy schemes.

·       Monitor

PO10

·       EC3: Rural Economy

·       EC4: Tourism

·       EC4A: Tourism-Led Development at Bolton Abbey

·       EC4B: Tourism Development Commitment at Hellifield

·    Number of rural buildings converted to Live/Work use.

·    Loss of Live/work units to residential.

·    Number of type of approvals for tourism development.

·       Monitor new and lost provision.

 

 

·       Monitor provision.


[1] The YDNP is a separate planning authority and is responsible for preparing both a local plan and a minerals and waste local plan for the Craven part of the National Park area.

[2] The legal basis for the requirement to produce a Local Plan was established by the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.   The 2004 Act sets a context for how Local Development Frameworks were to be prepared. However, the Localism Act 2011 changed this context to prepare Local Plans, by revoking Regional Strategies and establishing the Duty to Cooperate in its place.

[3]Lichfields – Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 Fig 2.10

[4] ONS, UK Business Statistics: Activity, Size and Location 2012

[5] York, North Yorkshire & East Riding Local Enterprise Partnership (2013) Strategic Economic Plan, Part 2, page 133

[6] ONS, Business Demography Statistics 2013

[7] ONS Annual Population Survey (Jul 2013-Jun 2014)

[8] Lichfields -Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 para 2.14 page 9

[9] Lichfields - Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 para 3.36 page 24

[10] Lichfields - Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 para 3.37 page 24

[11] Lichfields - Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 para 5.51 page35

[12] Lichfields - Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth 2017 Figs 2.5 and 2.6 page 10

[13] Office of Rail and Road (ORR) –Estimates of Station Usage for 2014/15

[14] Craven SA/SEA Scoping Report 2018 para 4.1

[15] “Heritage Counts 2013” Historic England

[16] ONS 2015 Mid- Year Estimate

[17] Craven SA/SEA Scoping Report 2018 para 4.1

[18] SHMA 2015 para 4.11 and Fig 4.1 page 49/50

[19] ONS 2014 - SNPP

[20] Edge Analytics –Craven Demographic Forecasting Update October 2016 Fig 6, page 8

[21] Edge Analytics –Craven Demographic Forecasting Update October 2016 Fig 6, and para 2.14, page 8

[22] Edge Analytics –Craven Demographic Forecasting Update October 2016 Fig 19, para 4.17, page 25

[23] SHMA 2017 para 3.12, Fig 3.1, page 28/29

[24] SHMA Dec 2016 Tables 4.6 and 4.7, page 47

[25] SHMA 2017 para 7.9 page 87 and Table 7.2, page 88

[26] SHMA 2017 para 5.9 page 69 and Table 5.1b page 71

[27] SHMA 2017 paras 4.5 and 4.6 and Table 4.2,   page 38/39

[28] SHMA 2017 Fig 4.4 page 45

[29] Lichfields – Craven Employment Land Review and Future Requirements for Economic Growth March 2017 Table 8.2, para 8.19 page 64

[30] 32dph (net) includes dwellings, garages, gardens and parking spaces; a nominal allowance for access roads; and public open space (POS) at a rate of 43 sqm per dwelling to cover all POS typologies, in line with recommendations from the Council’s Assessment of Open Space, Playing Pitch and Sport Facilities (February 2016).

[31] Duty of Regard under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000

[32]Significance is defined as “the value of a heritage asset to this and future generations because of its heritage interest” (NPPF).

[33] Non- designated heritage assets are identified in the Historic Environment Record, which is maintained by North Yorkshire County Council and in conservation area appraisals undertaken by Craven District Council, which are available online.

[34] The Heritage at Risk Register is maintained by Historic England and is available online

[35] IROPI – Imperative Reasons of Overriding Public Interest

[36] Under the Climate Change Act 2008, the Secretary of State must ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline.

[37] Low carbon and renewable energy capacity in Yorkshire and Humber Final Report March 2011 (AECOM) and Managing Landscape Change: Renewable & Low Carbon Energy Developments – a Landscape Sensitivity framework for North Yorkshire and York February 2012 (AECOM)

[38]Anyone obstructing or blocking a PROW can be prosecuted under the Highways Act 1980.

[39] Green wedges were designated by Policy BE3 and shown on the Proposals Map of the Craven District (outside the Yorkshire Dales National Park) Local Plan, 1999.

[40]The background paper ‘Review of Green Wedge Designations in Craven’ (June 2017) includes an assessment of how effective green wedge policy has been in maintaining distinct gaps between settlements, reassesses the appropriateness of original green wedge boundaries and considers policy wording. The background paper accompanies the local plan.

[41] SHMA November 2017 page 92 Table 7.4

[42] Within the Craven plan area, designated rural areas are the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the parishes of Bank Newton, Bentham, Bolton Abbey, Burton-in-Lonsdale, Clapham-cum-Newby, Coniston Cold, Embsay-with-Eastby, Gargrave, Giggleswick, Halton East, Hellifield, Ingleton, Langcliffe, Lawkland, Long Preston, Otterburn, Rathmell, Settle, Stirton-with-Thorlby, Thornton-in-Lonsdale and Wigglesworth. Please refer to Section 157 of the Housing Act 1985 and the Housing (Right to Buy) (Designated Rural Areas and Designated Region) (England) Order 1988.

[43] Apart from rural exception sites

[44] The Council will always want to respect the nature of information provided in confidence, however because the Council is a public authority, under the Environmental Information Regulations, any information it holds can be subject to disclosure to third parties. Obviously the Council would approach applicants where the possibility of this disclosure may arise.

[45] The Council’s transfer prices have been reviewed in 2017. They are currently set at £1,000 per square metre.

[46]Rural exception sites are defined in the NPPF at Annex 2: Glossary as small sites used for affordable housing in perpetuity where sites would not normally be used for housing. Rural exception sites seek to address the needs of the local community by accommodating households who are either current residents or have an existing family or employment connection. Small numbers of market homes may be allowed at the local authority’s discretion, for example where essential to enable the delivery of affordable units without grant funding.

[47] On 11th January 2000, conditional outline planning permission was granted for construction of Hellifield Rural Environmental Centre (decision no. 5/42/149/C). The outline permission was renewed on 10th February 2003 (decision no. 42/2002/2763), reserved matters were approved on 20th September 2005 (decision no. 42/2005/5082) and works to implement the permission were subsequently carried out.

[48] A map showing the boundary of the Bolton Abbey Core Visitor Area (CVA) is provided in the Bolton Abbey Development Options Appraisal Study (BADOAS), which has been prepared by the Bolton Abbey Estate in liaison with local and external stakeholders. The CVA extends from Bolton Bridge to Barden Bridge, includes Bolton Abbey Station and is bisected by the boundary of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. That part of the CVA falling within the Craven Local Plan area is shown on the Policies Map (Inset Map No. 24). The BADOAS has been incorporated into the Local Plan evidence base and supports Local Plan Policies EC4 and EC4A.

[49] Skipton BID funds projects, events and other activities to ensure that the town remains the ideal place in which to work, visit, shop and live. Settle & District Chamber of Trade is developing a live business plan supported by a vision, objectives and actions including a website, visitor signage and cultural facilities. An Action Plan for Ingleton sets out a number of key improvements for the village and has been prepared by Craven District Council, Ingleton Parish Council, Ingleton & District Tradespeoples' Association and Ingleton Rural Community Association.

[50] No more than 5 planning obligations may be pooled together (Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations 2010 – Part 11 Planning Obligations)

[51]  Source: Assessing needs and opportunities: a companion guide to PPG17

[52] Within the Craven plan area, designated rural areas are the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the parishes of Bank Newton, Bentham, Bolton Abbey, Burton-in-Lonsdale, Clapham-cum-Newby, Coniston Cold, Embsay-with-Eastby, Gargrave, Giggleswick, Halton East, Hellifield, Ingleton, Langcliffe, Lawkland, Long Preston, Otterburn, Rathmell, Settle, Stirton-with-Thorlby, Thornton-in-Lonsdale and Wigglesworth. Please refer to Section 157 of the Housing Act 1985 and the Housing (Right to Buy) (Designated Rural Areas and Designated Region) (England) Order 1988.

[53]  https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/broadband-strategy-policy


APPENDIX A: TO POLICY INF3: SPORT, OPEN SPACE & BUILT SPORTS FACILITIES

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Promoting healthy lifestyle choices is a key part of improving standards of living and reducing health inequality. The Local Plan aims to facilitate healthy living, not only by providing high quality housing, a high quality natural environment and promoting sustainable transport choices such as walking and cycling through Green Infrastructure, but also by ensuring that communities have access to high quality open spaces, sport and built sports facilities.

2. WHAT TYPE OF PROPOSALS WILL POLICY INF3 BE APPLIED TO?

2.1 The Council’s standards for the provision of open space will be applied to all applications for new residential development that result in a net gain in residential units. This includes proposals that involve:

• Conversions & Change of Use

• Flats

• Sheltered and extra care housing

• Affordable Housing

• Self-catering holiday accommodation

• Agricultural workers dwelling

• Renewal of planning permission that has expired

• Revised planning permission where the numbers of bedrooms increase as a result of the revision.

• Planning applications to make temporary dwellings permanent.

2.2 The following forms of development that will not be subject to the policy:

• Rest homes and nursing homes

• Replacement dwellings

• Residential extensions and annexes

• Revised planning permission (provided that the number of bedrooms is not increased by the revision)

• Renewal of planning permission that has not expired

• Temporary dwellings.

3. WHEN WILL WE ASK FOR PROVISION?

3.1 Provision will be made in all new housing and mixed-use developments of 11 or more dwellings and on any site with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000 sqm including those on sites allocated under local plan policies SP5 to SP11, to provide or contribute towards new or improved sport, open space and built sports facilities.

3.2 Within designated rural areas* new housing and mixed use developments are required to provide or contribute towards new or improved sport, open space and built sports facilities on developments of between 6 and 10-units and from developments of less than 6 dwellings but more than 1000sqm combined gross floorspace. Financial contributions will be commuted until after completion of units within the development.

3.3 Proposals for new residential development of 50 or more dwellings may be required to provide new open space on site. The standards set out in table 1 below will be used to calculate the sport, open space and built sports facility requirement. The Council will use these standards to negotiate the level and type of provision and whether new provision is required on site or whether the quality of existing open space should be improved.

* Within the Craven plan area, designated rural areas are the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the parishes of Bank Newton, Bentham, Bolton Abbey, Burton-in-Lonsdale, Clapham-cum-Newby, Coniston Cold, Embsay-with-Eastby, Gargrave, Giggleswick, Halton East, Hellifield, Ingleton, Langcliffe, Lawkland, Long Preston, Otterburn, Rathmell, Settle, Stirton-with-Thorlby, Thornton-in-Lonsdale and Wigglesworth. Please refer to Section 157 of the Housing Act 1985 and the Housing (Right to Buy) (Designated Rural Areas and Designated Region) (England) Order 1988.

4. HOW WILL THE POLICY OPERATE?

4.1 The Council will assess each development (of 11 or more dwellings and on any site with a combined gross floor area of more than 1000 sqm, and for developments of between 6-10 dwellings, and from developments of less than 6 dwellings but more than 1000sqm combined gross floorspace within designated rural areas) for the existing quantity and quality of open space, sports facilities and pitches, within catchment of the development, in order to determine the local need and if existing provision can meet the need generated by the development. This will be based upon the 2016 assessment and subsequent updates.

4.2 Where there is a quantity and or quality deficiency the Council will use the standards and formula set out in this appendix to negotiate for provision and/or contribution to ensure that adequate quantity and quality of open space, sports facilities and pitches are provided in order to meet the need generated by the development.

4.3 When an application is received in “outline” an initial calculation will be made based on an indicative number of dwellings proposed for an outline proposal. Once a reserved matters application is submitted, this initial calculation will be updated by a more detailed one based on the actual number and size of dwellings proposed.

5. WHAT STANDARDS WILL WE APPLY FOR PROVISION?

5.1 Table 1 below contains both national and local standards. The national standards are derived from the Fields In Trust recommended benchmark guidelines for formal open space. Local open space standards have been calculated by expressing provision in hectares per thousand population by comparing existing (2012) and projected (2032) population figures with the actual level of current provision and provide a baseline standard based on existing levels of open space throughout the plan area.

5.2 These standards have been used to identify current and future deficits or surpluses in the quantity, quality and accessibility of open space and this analysis will be used by the Council to meet the standards set out in Table 1. National Standards will be used where there is a potential loss of existing open space provision and local standards will be used to calculate the provision of new open space required throughout the plan area.

5.3 Where a quantity deficiency exists in a location, the Council will negotiate for on-site provision of facilities, subject to recommended minimum size standards for open space types as set out in Table 1 below. Where the locality has a deficiency in the quality of existing open space or facilities, the Council will require a contribution to be made to address that deficiency. A deficiency is where the existing provision does not meet the minimum quality standards set out in Table 1 below. The exact type of sports, open space or built sports facility required will be dependent on the quality and quantity deficiencies that exist across the plan area and within catchment of the new development. These deficiencies are identified in the Playing Pitch Strategy, Open Space Assessment and Built Sports Facilities Strategy 2016, and any subsequent updates.

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

Parks and

 

Gardens

·                     Welcoming clean, well maintained area with

 

hard/soft landscaping

 

·                     A one stop community facility, accessible to all with a range of leisure, recreational and play opportunities

·                     Safe to visit, pleasant to walk and sit in

 

·                     Cut back trees and bushes for safety and clear sight-lines

·                     Include paved and planted areas, paths, grassed areas, seating, clear pathways, appropriate lighting and signage to, and within, the site

·                     Include ramps instead of steps and wide paths for wheelchair and pushchair users

·                     May provide opportunities for public realm art

 

·                     Should link to surrounding green space.

0.8 ha/1,000

 

population

 

 

 

710 m

 

walking

Fields in

 

Trust

 

 

 

Fields in Trust

0.61 ha/ 1,000

 

population

 

 

 

710 m

 

walking

Local standard

 

adopted

 

 

 

National standard adopted

 

 

Recommended minimum size standard for new on site provision is 0.2Ha with 5meter buffer

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amenity greenspace

i.e Village Greens

·                     Clean and well maintained green space, with

 

appropriate ancillary furniture pathways, and natural landscaping

·                     Safe site with spacious outlook

 

·                     Enhance the environment/ could become a community focus

·                     Large spaces may afford opportunities for informal play.

 

 

·                     Smaller landscaped areas in and around housing areas

·                     Informal recreation

 

·                     Provide connections for wildlife and people movement

·                     Include, and often connect to, green lungs

 

·                     Contribute to biodiversity

 

·                     Planted using native species

 

·                     Areas to be maintained clear of dog fouling and litter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.6 ha/1,000

 

population

 

 

 

480 m

 

walking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fields in Trust

 

 

Fields in Trust

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.41 ha/1,000

 

population

 

 

 

480 m

 

walking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

National standard adopted

 

 

National standard adopted Recommended minimum size standard for new on site provision is 0.1Ha with 5meter buffer

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

 

·                     Provision of seating and bins

 

·                     May provide opportunities for public realm art

 

·                     May include woodland.

 

 

 

 

Play Areas for Children and Facilities for Young People and Teenagers

·                     A range of provision for young people of both equipped and natural play areas

·                     Spaces should be well sited, accessible, convenient, visible, safe and secure, with seating for adults, litter bins and cycle racks – also consider pushchair/wheelchair access

·                     Well lit with informal surveillance when possible

 

·                     Equipment should suit the needs of all ages and abilities and be well maintained

·                     Zones to prevent conflict and spaces and seating for supervision

·                     Should be clearly bounded, well maintained, free of dog fouling, have clear pathways, appropriate lighting and signage

·                     The Council does not encourage the provision of

0.55 ha/ population

 

 

 

 

LAPs – 100m LEAPs – 400m  NEAPs – 1,000m

700m for Youth provision

 

 

 

 

Recommend

Fields in Trust

 

 

 

 

Fields in Trust

0.30 ha/ population

 

 

 

 

LAPs – 100m LEAPs – 400m

NEAPs – 1,000m

700m for Youth Provision

National standard Adopted

 

 

 

 

National standard adopted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAP to have min 100m2 of activity

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

 

unequipped Local Areas for Play.

 

·                     Robust yet imaginative play environments ranging from youth shelters to skate parks and multi-use games areas

·                     Kick about/games areas, skate parks, basket ball courts

·                     If located within other areas of open space they should include buffer zones to prevent conflict

·                     Should promote a sense of ownership and be accessible to all and have clear pathways, appropriate lighting and signage

·                     They should be visible and safe, well maintained and free of dog fouling

ed minimum

 

size standard for new on site provision is 0.01ha - LAP, 0.04ha - LEAP, 0.1ha

- NEAP and Youth provision

 

 

space    with               5m

 

buffer

 

LEAP     to                have min                      400m2

activity                space with 20m buffer. NEAP and Youth provision to have 1000m2          of

activity               space and 30m buffer

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

Formal

 

Open Space – Cemeteries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civic Space

·                     Encourage greater use of cemeteries for informal

 

recreation e.g. allow movement inclusive of cemeteries for walking

·                     Contribute to biodiversity

 

·                     Provision of seating and bins

 

·                     Good level of natural surveillance and lighting for safety

·                     Ensure wheelchair/pushchair access and accessible paths for inclusiveness

·                     Tackle the problem of dog fouling.

 

·                     Use of pavement obstructions e.g. Display boards outside shops

 

 

·                     Create a sense of local identity by:

 

·                     Increased seating provision throughout town centre civic spaces

·                     Make greater use of civic spaces for events

 

·                     Opportunities for public art to enhance civic spaces.

Quantity N/A

 

 

 

 

 

400 m

 

walking (local significance)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantity N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

400 m

 

walking (local significance)

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLA

0.5 ha/1,000

 

Population*

 

 

 

400 m

 

walking (local significance)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Included in above

Local standard

 

adopted

 

 

 

National standard adopted

No recommended minimum size for on site provision as new housing developments will not be required to provide on site

 

 

As above Recommended minimum size standard for new on site provision

Table 1 – Adopted Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area

TYPOLOGY /

 

DEFINITION

QUALITY STANDARD

NATIONAL QUANTITY

STANDARD

SOURCE

LOCAL QUANTITY STANDARD

NOTES

 

 

 

 

 

is 0.1ha with 5m

 

buffer

Formal

 

Open Space - Allotment Gardens

·                     Secure area of land commonly within, or on the

 

edge of, a developed area which can be rented by local people for the growing of vegetables, flowers or fruit not-for-profit

·                     Provide opportunities for those who wish to grow their own produce, and support health, sustainability and social inclusion

·                     Sites should be well drained and accessible with wide paved paths, car access and parking, toilets, recycling facilities and inorganic waste disposal facilities

·                     Areas should be well lit and provide safe paths.

0.3 ha /1000*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1200 m

 

walking (local significance)

Fields in

 

Trust other local standards

 

 

Fields in Trust – other local authoritie s

0.3 ha/1,000

 

population

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

400 m (local significance)

Local and

 

National FIT standard adopted as the same National FIT other local authority standard adopted Recommended minimum size standard for new on site provision is 0.1ha with 5m buffer

6. HOW IS THE AMOUNT OF PROVISION CALCULATED?

6.1 The Council uses a formula which is based upon the following elements:

• The number of people that the development is likely to generate (demand)

• How much open space provision is required from the generated demand based upon our adopted standards - see Table 2 below

• How will this demand affect the existing local supply in terms of quantity and quality of local provision to meet the needs generated by the development?

• If a quantity deficiency exists then on site provision will be required based upon our adopted standard and subject to meeting minimum size requirements - see notes in Table 1 above and Table 2 below of quantity per person.

• If there is a quantity deficiency for just one type of provision, the Council may ask the development to include this one provision on site as a priority,

• If a quality deficiency in local provision exists, then a contribution is required to improve this to ensure that needs generated by development can be catered for.

• For off-site provision, the Council has a cost calculator that is applied for the different types of provision required. Table 4 & 5 below sets this out for each of the types of provision and how the amount is generated.

7. HOW WILL THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE GENERATED BY A DEVELOPMENT BE CALCULATED?

7.1 In calculating the amount of open space to be provided by a development, the estimated population to be generated is based on the 2012 based household projections to 2037 for England, including the average household size for Craven which range from 2.21 in 2012, 2.16 in 2017, 2.13 in 2022, 2.10 in 2027 and 2.07 in 2032. Population generated from developments will also be based on the size and type of dwellings proposed and what need is generated by a specific development.

8. HOW MUCH PROVISION IS REQUIRED BASED UPON THE STANDARD FOR EACH OPEN SPACE AND SPORTS TYPE?

8.1 The calculation will use the adopted standards for new provision as set out in Table 1 above. This is based on hectare per 1000 population or m2 per person. These equate to the following amount of space and sports facility per person:

Table 2 – Adopted Quantity Standards for Open Space provision for Craven District plan area meter squared (m2) per person figure

Open Space

Standard per person

Allotments

3 m²

Amenity Green space

4.1 m²

Parks and Gardens

6.1 m²

Civic Space Only

0.35 m²

Children’s Equipped play areas

3 m²

Youth Provision – MUGA,

 

Skatepark, Shelter, iplay, BMX/Pump Track etc

2.5 m²

Green Corridor – Leeds Liverpool

 

Canal

1 m²

Sports Type

Required space per person

Swimming pool – water space

0.00921 m²

Sports Hall – Community

 

Accessible Badminton court space Skipton 2015

0.143 m²

Sports Pitch improvement

10.2 m²

Ancillary accommodation i.e.

 

Clubhouse

0.15 m²

8.2 The Sports type is based upon the identified supply deficiency, as set out in the pitch and sports facility assessment, and the number of people in the plan area. The equation divides the total supply against the total population. i.e. The Leeds & Liverpool canal total size is 33,000 m² divided by the South Craven population (33,441)

9. ARE THERE ANY SPECIFIC AREA NEEDS THAT DEVELOPMENTS WILL BE REQUIRED TO CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS?

9.1 The 2016 assessments highlight a number of deficiencies across the different sub areas and by open space, sports facility. These include the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, which is located throughout the South Craven Sub area and Settle Swimming pool, which services the Mid and North Craven areas. These facilities/green corridor serve the needs of all existing and future residents of these sub areas, therefore developments in these sub areas will be required to make a contribution towards these two specific sub area needs based upon the formula for amount and cost.

10. WHAT IS THE FORMULA AND HOW IS IT CALCULATED?

10.1 The formula for calculating provision will be the following: Number of proposed new units X the average household size for Craven* X the amount of new/improved provision required X the costs of each of the provision types
*Where developments are for smaller units, such as 1 bedroom flat, then the average household size will be negotiable to reflect the likely need generated by the development.

EXAMPLE:

As an example, a mixed size housing development of 25 units would generate the following:

Table 3 – Example of Quantity Standards for Open Space provision for a development of 25 units

Open Space Typology

Amount of new provision required for

 

25 units*

Allotments

25 X 2.21 X 3m2 = 166 m²

Amenity Green space

25 X 2.21 X 4.1m2 = 221 m²

Parks and Gardens

25 X 2.21 X 6.1m2 = 337 m²

Civic Space & Cemeteries

25 X 2.21 X 5m2 = 276 m²

Children’s Equipped play areas

25 X 2.21 X 3m2 = 165 m²

Youth Provision – MUGA,

 

Skatepark, Shelter, iplay, BMX/Pump Track etc

25 X 2.21 X 2.5m2 = 138 m²

Green Corridor - Leeds Liverpool

 

Canal

25 X 2.21 X 1m2 = 55 m²

Pitch and Sports Facility

 

Provision**

Amount of new or Improved

 

provision required for 25 units

Swimming pool water space –

 

Mid/North Craven

25 X 2.21 X 0.00921 = 0.50 m²

Sports Hall – Community

 

Accessible Badminton court space 2015  - Skipton Only

25 X 2.21 X 0.143 = 7.9 m²

Sports pitch improvement

 

requirement

25 X 2.21 X 10.2m2 = 564 m²

Sports Pitch Clubhouse

 

improvement

25 X 2.21 X 0.15m2 = 8.3 m²

10.2 The total amount of Open space need generated by a 25 dwelling development is 1303 m² plus the Green Corridor (Leeds & Liverpool Canal) and Sports / Pitch provision based upon local need, presuming quantity deficiencies exist in all types of open space.

10.3 As set out in Policy INF3 the Council will assess each proposed development in relation to the quantity and quality of existing local provision based upon the most recent assessment. Where there is existing adequate quantity and quality of an open space type that can cater for the needs generated by the development, then the Council will not require the development to contribute towards this. Where there is a quantity deficiency of local provision then the Council would negotiate with the developer to cater for this need. This need will therefore meet not only the developments needs but that of the wider community. The Council will also assess the quality of provision and where a local deficiency is identified, in the most recent assessment, then the development will be expected to contribute towards this.

11. WHAT IS THE MINIMUM SIZE FOR ON SITE PROVISION?

11.1 The recommended minimum size standards for on-site provision are set out in Table 1. Developments of 50 units or more are likely to generate enough demand for onsite provision, assuming quantity deficiencies exist for all types of open space. The Council would expect a 50 unit development to provide on-site open space of 2600m2. Priority for which type of open space will be based upon the greatest local deficiency as set out in the most recent Open Space assessment. Currently, if a development of 50 dwellings were proposed in:

• North Craven area there would be a requirement to provide an allotment;

• Mid Craven area there would be a requirement to provide a park and garden;

• South Craven area there would be a requirement to provide youth/teenage provision.

11.2 Developments of 100units or more will be expected to make on site provision for all types of open space i.e. a multi-purpose open space site (ca 5200m2) with a mix of elements such as a Park and Garden, an equipped children’s and youth play area with an allotment section, area of amenity green space and a civic space.

11.3 Developments of 50 units or more may be required to make a contribution towards off site provision for other types including Green Corridor, Sports Facilities and Pitches based upon the local need as set out in the assessments.

12. HOW IS THE AMOUNT OF FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTION CALCULATED FOR OFF SITE PROVISION?

12.1 The following process and information will be used to calculate developer contributions for the provision of new and improvement of existing sports, open space and built sports facilities off site:

1. Sports Facilities: swimming pools, sports halls and fitness facilities – use Sport England’s facility cost calculator by the type of provision. This will use the latest published quarterly costs calculations

2. Sports Pitches and ancillary pitch accommodation – use a combination of Sport England’s facility cost calculator by the type of provision and local pitch improvements schemes previously delivered or as detailed in an up to date PPS. It includes maintenance costs for 10 years. As of 2016 the average costs of provision to improve playing pitches is £11.10 per m². The annual maintenance costs for maintaining a pitch is £0.85per m². A figure of half this is included in the table to cover the uplift costs of maintaining an improved pitch to high quality standard as it assumes that the current maintenance is inadequate and only half the required costs of maintaining a high quality pitch are required.

3. Open Space – Existing formula used by CDC but updated by construction tender price costs or retail price index. This is based upon the actual costs of providing or upgrading play space for children and young people. The provision of amenity greenspace, parks and gardens, allotments is a combined figure for the likely costs associated with this type of provision. The costs for play equipment and youth provision also combines the Sport England cost calculations for type of provision and catalogue price for play equipment where we do not have such provision in the district such as iPlay systems and includes maintenance costs for 10 years.

4. Leeds & Liverpool Canal is based upon the Leeds & Liverpool Canal Towpath Access Development Plan 2014, which includes costs for upgrading and improving the canal. Developer contributions will be calculated by excluding the cost of improving the section from Skipton to Bradley as this was completed in 2016. Regard will also be had to the requirements of policy ENV11: The Leeds & Liverpool Canal and specific development principles set out for site allocations which are within reasonable proximity of The Leeds & Liverpool Canal.

12.2 The Council has a formula for calculating requirements under this policy. This includes all the above data, including the Sport England facility cost calculator and has a full breakdown of the costs for each type of provision. By inputting the number of units, the formula calculates the amount of provision the development will generate together with the costs of any off site contribution. This spreadsheet is updated annually with updated costs by inflation adjustment and can be found on the Council website https://www.cravendc.gov.uk/planning/planning-policy/planning-policy-facts-and-figures/planning-policy-evidence-base/infrastructure/

13. WHAT ARE THE COSTS FOR PROVISION?

13.1 The table below sets out the Councils costs for developer contributions towards off site provision.

Table 4 – List of costs for each Open Space type by m², per person and per standard house unit (2.21 persons per unit)

Type of Provision

Cost per

 

meter2

Cost per

 

person based upon standard

Cost per unit

 

(2.21 persons per unit)

Park and Garden

£25

£75

£166

Amenity Green space

£25

£102

£225

Civic Space

Based upon

 

specific Scheme

 

 

Allotments

£25

£102

£225

Equipped Children’s play

 

area

£132

£369

£815

Teenage and Youth

 

Provision

£134

£335

£740

Leeds Liverpool Canal

 

Green corridor improvement

£114

£96

£212**

Swimming Pool – water

 

space 25m x 4lane (200m2)

£17,150

£439

£970**

Sports Hall improvement

£485

£69

£152

Sports Pitch improvement

£11

£112

£248

Sports Pitch annual uplift

 

maintenance*

£4.25

£43

£95

Sports pitch ancillary

 

accommodation

£853

£127

£281

*A Pitch maintenance: uplift cost is required in order to maintain the improved pitch to the new quality standard. All sports pitches in Craven are liable to fall to poor quality pitches if not maintained to high standards due to the clay soil type that dominates the pitch stock. The maintenance cost assumes that the current site owner or users of poor quality pitches do not maintain the pitch to high standard and only incurs half the maintenance cost required for this.

** Contribution for these elements will be required for sites within the defined catchments for these types of open space and facilities within the sub area where the provision requirement exists in order to secure planning gain and meet CIL regulations if CIL is introduced by the Council.

13.2 Full supporting documents showing how these costs have been developed can be provided upon request and is available on the Council website.

13.3 The above figures have been checked by benchmarking against other Local Authority charges for Open Space, Sports provision.

14. WHAT ELEMENTS OF COSTS FOR FACILITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THE POLICY?

14.1 There are a number of eligible costs associated with making open space provision and these are set out in Table 5:

Table 5 – Details of what is included in the cost calculations set out by open space type.

Allotments

Costs are: Professional Fees such as site assessment

i.e. , topographical survey as well as design.

Costs cover landscaping, drainage, paths, services, equipment: benches and bins, signs etc, Construction works and 10years maintenance

Amenity Green

 

space

Costs are: Professional Fees such as site assessment

 

i.e. , topographical survey as well as design.

 

Costs cover landscaping, drainage, paths, services, equipment: benches and bins, signs etc, Construction works and 10years maintenance

Parks and

 

Gardens

Costs are: Professional Fees such as site assessment

 

i.e. , topographical survey as well as design.

 

Costs cover landscaping, drainage, paths, services, equipment: benches and bins, signs etc, Construction works and 10years maintenance

Civic Space

Costs are: Costs will be based upon any specific

 

scheme that is identified within the 2016 Open Space Assessment and any other relevant evidence i.e., the 2016 Retail & Leisure Study with Health Checks and subsequent updates.

Children’s

 

Equipped play areas and Youth Provision

– MUGA,

 

Skatepark, Shelter, iplay, BMX/Pump Track etc

Costs are: Professional Fees such as site assessment

 

i.e. , topographical survey as well as design.

 

Costs cover landscaping, drainage, paths, services, equipment: benches and bins, signs etc, All play equipment costs and construction works and 10years maintenance.

Green Corridor

 

– Leeds Liverpool Canal

Costs are based upon the Sustrans Access

 

Development Plan 2014 for a detailed costed scheme of work along the whole of the canal section excluding Bradley to Skipton section that has been completed.

Swimming pool

 

– water space

The cost relate to affordable community swimming pools taken from Sport England’s Sports facility costs.

Sports Hall

 

improvement

Costs are a quarter of the new build costs for a

 

community sports hall based upon Sport England’s Sports Facility costs

Sports Pitch

 

improvement

Costs relate to professional fees such as detailed site

 

agronomist report and scheme of work including type of drainage, all materials, project management costs and contingency – includes VAT

Sports Pitch

annual uplift maintenance

Costs relate to annual cutting, fertilising, weed killing,

 

sand dressing, spiking, aeration, drain rodding. The figure is 50% of the annual costs as it assumes the clubs/owners already have a pitch maintenance cost but not at the standard to maintain a high quality pitch

– includes VAT

Sports pitch

 

ancillary accommodation

Costs are: professional fees such as architect and

 

planning fees, scheme of work including, all materials, construction costs, project management costs and contingency – includes VAT

Costs will be revised annually using the Retail Price Index measure of inflation

15. WHAT ABOUT MAINTENANCE OF PROVISION?

15.1 Developers will be expected to make provision for the maintenance of sport, open spaces and built sports facilities by a local organisation, club or residents group. This relates to the both on site and off site provision as well as new or improved provision and will be for a minimum period of 10years. Maintenance costs will not be required for Sports halls, Swimming pools, Clubhouses as it is expected that these would generate income from users to cover ongoing maintenance costs.

EXAMPLE

Example of how the formula is calculated for Youth/Teenage provision: Youth Teenage provision includes the following mix of provision: Skatepark, MUGA, with lighting, Youth Shelter with Bluetooth, iPlay system, Climbing Boulder, BMX/Pump Track. This requires an area 3000m² (0.3Ha). Costs are a combination of Sport England Cost Calculations for provision, actual costs of previous recent delivered projects such as Skipton Pump Track as well as brochure costs from suppliers such as the iPlay and POD youth shelter. The capital and installation cost are £372,000. Maintenance costs covering 10years would be £10 per m² (£30,000) based upon existing known maintenance costs for play provision. This would give a total cost of £402,000 to provide this facility, which would serve 12,000 people based upon our adopted standard (0.25ha Youth provision = 2.5m² per person). To generate the cost per m² the formula divides the total cost by the size of area: £402,000
/ 3000m² = £134 per m². Taking the example above of a 25 unit development a contribution of £18,500 would be required to meet the local need (£134 per m² X 138m²). NB – if within the catchment of the development there is already some of the above provision such as a skatepark, then the costs of this can be removed from the equation.

16. HOW WILL THE COUNCIL SECURE PROVISION?

16.1 Provision, improvement and maintenance of sport, open space and built sports facilities will be secured through an appropriate mechanism, for example S106 Agreement, Unilateral Undertaking, condition or through CIL if appropriate. If CDC agree to introduce a CIL charging schedule, large projects such as replacement of Settle Pool may be included within CIL list. Prior to any adoption of a CIL charging schedule, the Council will continue to secure developer contributions towards off site open space provision through S106 Agreements. The Council will require all agreements relating to a financial contribution to be inflation adjusted based upon the Retail Price Index or another similar inflation measure. The adjustment will be from the date of the agreement being signed to the date by which the payment is due, referred to as trigger point. The Council has a separate account set up for each planning gain financial contribution. The Council also has a Section 106 register that includes all relevant planning gain contributions relating to open space. The monies cannot be used for the funding of projects or schemes other than for the public open space or sport facilities as set out in the agreement and within catchment of the development. Monies will be safeguarded until there is an agreed scheme in place for the use of the funds or until there are sufficient funds to undertake the necessary works. Agreed schemes must have a minimum security of tenure of ten years, at the time of spending. If the funds remain unspent ten years after the completion of the development, they will normally be repaid to the applicant.

17. FURTHER INFORMATION

Planning Policy Team: 01756 706472

Sports Development: 01756706391

Arts Development: 01756 706408


APPENDIX B: TO POLICY INF6: EDUCATION PROVISION

Introduction

1.1 In accordance with the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) the Craven Local Plan seeks to ensure that forecast demands for education from the housing requirement of the plan, and its distribution across the plan area can be provided for.

1.2 Paragraph 72 of the 2012 NPPF states that: “The Government attaches great importance to ensuring that a sufficient choice of school places is available to meet the needs of existing and new communities. Local planning authorities should take a proactive, positive and collaborative approach to meeting this requirement, and to development that will widen choice in education. They should:

• give great weight to the need to create, expand or alter schools; and

• work with schools promoters to identify and resolve key planning issues before applications are submitted.”

1.3 A Government policy statement “Planning for Schools Development” August 2011 also recognises the importance on the provision of school places.

1.4 Education provision is recognised in the NPPF and the NPPG as a type of infrastructure for which planning obligations may be sought from developers (Paragraph: 026 Reference ID: 23b-026-20150326).

1.5 The Craven Local Plan Policy INF6: Education Provision, of the Craven Local Plan, seeks to ensure that appropriate residential developments contribute to the provision of school places where such development will result in a need for new school places.

1.6 This policy and Policy SP5: Strategy for Skipton, safeguards land for two new primary schools in the town. This safeguarded land is located within the following residential developments:

• SK0081,82 and 108: Land north of Gargrave Road and west of Park Wood Drive and Stirtonber, and

• SK089 and SK090: Land to the north of Airedale Avenue and Elsey Croft and east of railway line.

1.7 Also, Policy SP7: Strategy for Bentham safeguards land for a primary school extension within the residential allocation of HB038.

1.8 This appendix explains how developer contributions are calculated and the process involved in this calculation. This process conforms with the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) Regulations 2010, as amended, on planning obligations.

1.9 North Yorkshire County Council (NYCC) is the Local Education Authority (LEA) and Craven District Council (CDC) is the local planning authority.

1.10 An increased number of children in an area will add to the number of pupils attending local schools. This increased number of children may or may not be able to be accommodated at a particular school, dependent upon its capacity. Where there is insufficient capacity at local schools arising from the impact of a proposed new residential development, planning regulations allow local planning authorities to seek developer contributions which would fund, or contribute to the funding of, the ‘infrastructure’ deficit. To determine whether a school place deficiency exists and whether this policy should apply to development proposals, CDC and NYCC will undertake the following steps:

2.0 STEP 1: Screening out inappropriate developments.

2.1 Developer contributions will not be required for retail and employment development where residential development does not form part of the proposal.

2.2 Developer contributions will not be sought for the following types of accommodation:

• Sheltered

• Elderly

• Student, or

• Holiday

2.3 Such accommodation will be that which clearly is incapable of occupation for general residential purposes by virtue of its internal layout, ownership or management or which has occupancy restricted by planning condition or legal agreement. Nor will developer contributions be sought for temporary housing or bedsits and one bedroom dwellings.

2.4 Developer contributions will not be sought from changes of use, conversion or redevelopment schemes where there is no net increase in the number of residential units to which contributions would apply.

2.5 For primary school places, developer contributions will not be sought from residential developments of less than

• 15 dwellings in all parts of the plan area outside Skipton, and

• less than 25 dwellings in Skipton

2.6 For secondary school places, developer contributions will not be sought from residential developments of below 100 dwellings across the whole plan area.

2.7 Whilst these thresholds could be lower in terms of the evidence given below on pupil to dwelling ratio, and the advice given in the NPPG (Paragraph 031 Ref ID: 23b-031- 20161116), the LEA seek to focus the operation of this policy on a scale of development that is likely to have a clear and significant impact on school capacity in the area.

2.8 Where proposed developments seek planning permission for a smaller part of a local plan housing allocation or a small part of a clearly larger development site, the size of the whole allocation site or the larger development site will be used to determine whether developer contributions will be sought. Otherwise, there could be a significant ‘education infrastructure’ deficit.

2.9 Developer contributions will only be sought for qualifying development proposals (at, and, above the site size thresholds) where a school place deficit is identified in Step 5 below.

3.0 STEP 2: Identifying School Capacity

3.1 North Yorkshire County Council, the LEA, maintains and regularly updates its database of existing and forecast school capacity for schools across Craven and North Yorkshire as a whole.

3.2 This database will be used by the LEA to provide the baseline information on school capacity when planning applications for residential development are submitted to Craven District Council. This data will identify the net capacity of, and the number of pupils in, the appropriate primary and secondary school within the catchment area of the proposed residential development over a three year period.

3.3 The primary school pupil forecasts are prepared using information on historical trends in admissions, current numbers on the roll and the historic birth rate from the Office of National Statistics. An average percentage of the current district birth rate is taken against numbers on the roll in the past three reception years. This percentage is then applied to forecast and actual district birth rates to provide forecast Yr1 Reception numbers. Numbers are then rolled forward a year group. A migration trend based on a three year average of past numbers on the roll, excluding reception is then applied to further primary year groups to provide for the next and subsequent years. Annex 1 illustrates the approach taken by the LEA in making these forecasts

3.4 Pupil forecasts for secondary schools are constructed using current numbers on the roll and historic trends in admissions from primary school feeder schools. Secondary school numbers on the roll are taken from the October School Census count. Admission factors are calculated as the percentage of entry to secondary school compared to the numbers of pupils leaving the last year at primary school in the previous year. This three year average is then applied to the total pupils leaving the feeder primary schools to provide forecasts for the first year of entry to the secondary school. In a similar way to the primary school forecasts a migration trend is applied to the current numbers on the roll to provide forecasts for the next and subsequent years.

3.5 The above methodology for both primary and secondary schools is an accepted method of forecasting used by many local authorities (See Education and Skills Funding Agency School Capacity (SCAP) Survey 2017: Guide to forecasting pupil numbers in school planning (July 2017).

3.6 The population projections suggest an overall increase or decrease in the population of school age children generally. However, the projections from additional housing development better forecast the impact of that housing on a particular area. This tends to be over and above what would be expected from population and migration projections alone. For example by 2022/23 the general population projections only forecast an increase of 7 pupils in total across the catchment areas of all five Skipton town primary schools. This shows that the expected increase in pupil number across these schools is mainly housing related.

4.0 STEP 3: Measuring the impact of new residential development on school capacity.

4.1 The next step in this process requires an estimate of the likely number of children of primary and secondary school age that are likely to be generated by the number of dwellings proposed in the development. The LEA’s evidence to support this estimation has recently been updated. Annex 2 of the Council’s Education Provision Forecasts (Sept. 2018) provides the results of this updating for Craven District. These results have been derived from the following information:

• Residential developments of 25 dwellings or more completed in the Craven Local Plan area since between 2008 and 2018.

• The identification of the number of primary and secondary school pupils generated by each residential development by comparing: School pupil roll data, including home addresses with the street names of the completed developments

4.2 The results in Annex 2 show a Craven District ‘pupil to dwelling’ ratio which is slightly higher than the North Yorkshire average. Clearly the Craven District evidence more than supports this North Yorkshire average and it is this county wide lower average that is used in the plan. This is a pupil to dwelling ratio of ‘1 in 4’ for primary schools and ‘1 in 8’ for secondary schools. This pupil to dwelling ratio will be reviewed within 5 years of the plan’s adoption.

5.0 STEP 4: Identifying the need for developer contributions

5.1 Step 2 of the process will produce a figure which represents a surplus, deficiency or balance of capacity at the local primary and secondary school without taking into account the increased pressures of the proposed new development (A minus B in Figure 1). Step 3 will provide the number of additional school places generated by the proposed new development. Hence step 4 will use the conclusions of steps 2 and 3 to determine whether the proposed new dwellings will result in a deficiency in school places in the local area.

5.2 Forecasts of future school capacity and national population growth are made by the CSA over a three year period. If, following these calculations the primary or secondary school is deemed to be at capacity or in shortfall in year three, contributions will be sought at the full rate. (This means the cost to the developer will be the total number of school places generated by the development multiplied by the cost required to increase the school capacity by one school place – see Step 5 below).

5.3 If there is a surplus of capacity in year three by ‘x’ amount and the development generates ‘y’ school places, contributions will be sought on the difference between ‘x’ and ‘y’. The example given in Figure 1 illustrates this type of situation where there is a surplus of 5 school places at year three and the proposed development generates 15 new school places. Hence the developer contribution is for the ‘net’ school place deficiency caused by the development proposal of 10 school places.

5.4 The number of children generated by each individual residential development will vary dependent upon the type and size of dwelling and by its location. In some cases, it may be argued that the dwellings built are for a particular market, for example couples, starter homes, or that a development is not within easy reach of a primary school. However, CDC and the LEA will not normally reduce the basis for the calculations. Over time any dwelling (excluding sheltered, elderly person only, or one bedroomed units) in any location has the potential to accommodate children of school age.

6.0 STEP 5: Estimating the level of developer contributions

6.1 Where a deficiency of school places is not identified as a result of the proposed residential development, then no developer contributions will be sought. Where, in step 4, a deficiency does exist from the impact of the proposed development a calculation is made by NYCC to estimate an appropriate level of cost to the developer.

6.2 The Department for Education (DfE) publishes a cost multiplier per pupil place for primary and secondary school places. It is the average of multipliers for new schools and extensions to existing schools, weighted to reflect the national balance of such projects. An ‘area per pupil’ estimate is multiplied by a cost per square metre to provide a cost per school place.

6.3 The 2009 DfE cost multiplier, currently used by the LEA is:

• £12,257 per primary school place, and

• £18,469 per secondary school place.

6.4 These costs are adjusted to take account of regional cost factors. contingencies and professional fees (10%), plus furniture and equipment (£383 per school place) (All costs have been normalised to a common UK average price level using regional location factors published by BCIS to accord with the UK Mean 100. Index taken at November 2016).

6.5 This results in a total cost per school place deficiency to the developer of:

• £13,596 per primary school place, and

• £20,293 per secondary school place.

6.6 For a 10 school place deficiency identified for a primary school, a contribution of £135,960 would be sought (See the final row of calculation in Figure 1).

6.7 Calculations will be based on the number of dwellings included in the planning application. Any increase in the number of dwellings approved through, for example, a revised application, is likely to generate additional contributions. No account will be taken of the rate of housebuilding on the site, as this is an uncertain variable. A review of the cost multiplier will take place on an annual basis.

7.0 Procedure and practice

7.1 Applicants are encouraged, at the earliest opportunity through pre-application dialogue with NYCC and CDC, to identify the likely need for education related developer contributions and a preliminary estimate of their scale.

7.2 Upon receipt of a formal and relevant planning application, CDC will contact NYCC who will formalise the position regarding the need for, and scale of developer contributions for each proposal. The applicant and CDC will be notified accordingly and where necessary, negotiations can then take place between NYCC and the applicant on the details of this matter.

7.3 The decision on the application and the need for a Section 106 legal agreement is a matter for CDC. As a general principle the Council will not issue a decision notice on an application until such agreement, when necessary, has been reached between the two parties. Any contribution due will be made payable to the North Yorkshire County Council (as the LEA) and not the District Council as local planning authority.

7.4 As stated earlier, developer contributions will only be required where a local need for/‘net deficit’ of school places has been identified. NYCC will show to the Council and the applicant how funds received will be spent within a prescribed period. Contributions will normally be spent within a five year period after receipt, but some flexibility on this period is necessary to allow the pooling of developer contributions where necessary to make the best use of the monies available to meet the local plan’s proposed level of growth in an area.

7.5 In the majority of cases, funds will be spent on the local primary and secondary school. However, NYCC reserves the right to allocate the funds to other schools if overall education strategy or changes in catchments or parental choice so demand and the agreement of CDC is secured.

Figure 1: Assessment Form used by the CSA to determine the need for developer contributions towards Primary school buildings

Craven Local Plan Appendix B Figure 1


APPENDIX C: TO POLICY ENV6: FLOOD RISK
ENVIRONMENT AGENCY TECHNICAL NOTE

Appendix C - Policy ENV6 – Environment Agency Technical Note:

a) Surface water should be discharged in the following order of priority:

1. An adequate soakaway or some other form of infiltration system.

2. An attenuated discharge to watercourse.

3. An attenuated discharge to public surface water sewer.

4. An attenuated discharge to public combined sewer.

b) Development necessitating a discharge to a public sewer should be supported by clear evidence demonstrating why alternative options are not available. Approved development proposals should be supplemented by appropriate maintenance and management regimes for surface water drainage schemes. Landscaping proposals should consider what contribution the landscaping of a site can make to reducing surface water discharge. This can include hard and soft landscaping such as permeable surfaces

c) Development should not increase flood risk on greenfield sites. Surface water run-off rates for greenfield sites should be restricted to the existing run-off rate from a lower order storm event, e.g. a 1 in 1 year storm.

d) Development on brownfield sites should offer a 30% reduction in surface water run-off.

e) Sufficient attenuation and long term storage should be provided to accommodate at least a 1 in 30 year storm. Any design should also ensure that storm water resulting from a 1 in 100 year event, plus 30% to account for climate change, and surcharging the drainage system, can be stored on the site without risk to people or property and without overflowing into a watercourse.


APPENDIX D: POLICIES SCHEDULE

A number of policies from the Craven Local Plan (1999) were saved in 2007. The majority of these saved policies have been replaced by the policies in this Local Plan. The following table details these replacements.

Replacement Local Plan Policy

Saved Craven Local Plan Policies (1999)

Saved in 2007

Strategic Policies

SD1

N/A

SD2

N/A

SP1

H1

SP2

EMP1,T6,T7

SP3

N/A

SP4

H3, H4, H5, H8, H17, H18

SP5

H2, H3, EMP3, SRC13, SRC14

SP6

H2, H3

SP7

H2, H3

SP8

H2, H3

SP9

H2, H3

SP10

H2, H3

SP11

H2, H3,H4,H5

SP12

N/A

Environment

ENV1

ENV1, ENV2, ENV18, EMP16, SRC12

ENV2

N/A

ENV3

H20

ENV4

ENV10

ENV5

N/A

ENV6

N/A

ENV7

N/A

ENV8

N/A

ENV9

N/A

ENV10

BE2

ENV11

SRC11

ENV12

SRC12

ENV13

BE3

Housing

H1

N/A

H2

H12

H3

N/A

Economy

EC1

EMP2, EMP3, EMP4, EMP5, EMP6

EC2

EMP2, EMP7

EC3

EMP5, EMP8, EMP9, EMP15, EMP16, EMP17, EMP18, ENV12, ENV13, R10

EC4

EMP11, EMP14, EMP15, EMP16, EMP17, EMP18

EC4A

EMP11

EC4B

EMP11

Retail

EC5

R1, R2

EC5A

R3

Infrastructure, Services and Facilities

INF1

N/A

INF2

N/A

INF3

SRC2

INF4

N/A

INF5

N/A

INF6

SRC13

INF7

T2 & T4

Note: Saved Local Plan Policies EMP19 and SRC14 were not required to be replaced in this Local Plan.


POLICIES MAP

Policies Map Craven Local Plan

Inset Map 1 Skipton:

Inset Map 1 Craven Local Plan

Inset Map 2 Glusburn, Cross Hills, Sutton in Craven:

Inset Map 2 Craven Local Plan

Inset Map 3 Skipton Town Centre:

Inset Map 3 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 4, 4a and 5 Settle, Giggleswick, High and Low Bentham:

Inset Maps 4, 4a, 5 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 6-12 Ingleton, Burton in Lonsdale, Rathmell, Langcliffe, Clapham, Newby, Keasden:

Inset Maps 6-12 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 13-19 Hellifield, Gargrave, Wigglesworth, West Marton, East Marton, Thornton in Craven, Broughton:

Inset Maps 13-19 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 20-24 Embsay with Eastby, Carleton, Stirton with Thorlby, Draughton, Bolton Abbey:

Inset Maps 20-24 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 25-29 Cononley, Farnhill, Kildwick, Low Bradley, Lothersdale, Cowling:

Inset Maps 25-29 Craven Local Plan

Inset Maps 30-34 Coniston Cold, Bell Busk, Halton East, Lower Westhouse, Tosside:

Inset Maps 30-34 Craven Local Plan